§ 3. GENERAL SCRIPTURE EVIDENCE AGAINST WHITBYS FUTURO-FIGURATIVE THEORY, AND IN FAVOR OF THE LITERAL THEORY OF THE MILLENNIAL FIRST RESURRECTION.
Under this head I shall hope to prove the synchronism of the departed saints resurrection, and of Christs second and glorious advent, alike with the epoch of Israels promised conversion and restoration, with that of the contemporarily opening blessedness of the world, and with that of the fall of Antichrist: - some other and different points of evidence being added afterwards.
And, in preparation for this important branch of my argument, it may be well first to trace the subject of Scripture promise somewhat fully, and from the fountainhead.
Every after-promise then made to man was wrapt up (if I may so say) and contained in that original and primary promise made to our first parents after their fall, The seed of the woman shall bruise the serpents head. Now on this promise we have what I may call an inspired comment, in the apostles saying, For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that He might destroy the works of the devil.  And, as Satans work was the introduction of both natural and moral evil, - including alike a curse on man, with death as its special sign and accompaniment, and a curse too on the creation made for man, (for the creation was subjected to vanity, not through any voluntary act, but by reason of him who subjected it, i.e. if we construe the word of the instrumental cause, the Devil,  ) therefore the undoing of his work involved a twofold restoration and removal of the curse; the moral restoration of this created earth of his habitation. Nor, I think, is it mere unfounded conjecture to suppose that Adam, Abel, Enoch, so understood, and hoped themselves to profit by it,  - The promise was not jeoparded by the judgment of a flood of waters which God would bring on the earth to destroy all flesh: for, together with his declaration of the coming judgment, God made the saving declaration to Noah, But with thee will I establish my covenant:  that is, my original covenanted promise made to Adam. - Yet again, in the tenth generation after Noah, when the world was afresh beginning to be filled with an apostate population, and so the covenant to be afresh endangered, He virtually repeated it to Abraham; Get thee out of thy country to a land which I will show thee; . . and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed:  - there being added soon after, very remarkably, a grant of the land itself to which he was called, as if in some way particularly connected with the accomplishment of the previous comprehensive promise: not only Unto thy seed will I give this land;  but To thee will I give it, and to thy seed, for ever.  It is not the mere human expositor that has noted the fact of these terms of the promise having apparently given to Abraham a personal interest in the land, as its inheritor, and similarly to Isaac and Jacob after him:  else we might argue that the promise of Abrahams possessing it was fulfilled in his seeds possessing it.  but one inspired seems so to explain the matter:  and perhaps God himself, long before.  - But how then was the promise to be realized by him and them? He was but a stranger and sojourner in the land; not having had, nor expecting in this life to have,  so much as a foot of it in possession: - indeed it was expressly intimated to him, in a vision that had a horror of great darkness as its meet accompaniment, that he was himself to die and be buried in a good old age, like his fathers before him:  - whereas the inheritance promised implied fruition as a possessor, and that possession one for ever.  The memorable act of his proceeding according to the Divine command, to slay Isaac, the very son in whom the promise was to have its fulfillment, furnished occasion (as the inspired apostle explains to us) for the manifestation of his views on this point. He accounted that God was able to raise him up even from the dead;  and in fact did, as it were, receive him back from death (and of course all Isaacs seed in him) in a type or figure.  That is, I conceive, his faith realized the possibility, and rested on it, of the promise connected with Isaac having its fulfillment through the intervention of, and after, a resurrection from the dead: - a figure of the manner in which he himself, doubtless, as well as Isaac and Isaacs seed, (Christ, the promised seed cat´exochn, specially included,  ) might expect to realize the promised inheritance.  So by faith he sojourned in the land of promise, (a place which he should after receive for an inheritance,) as in a strange country; dwelling in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise:  yet looking for the promised inheritance, with the world itself as its appendage,  after death and resurrection: and for all in a state quite different from what was then before his eyes; even as the world renovated, a Canaan made heavenly,  a city which had foundations, whose builder and maker was God. 
Meanwhile there had been revealed to him (it was in the vision that had the horror of great darkness accompanying it) a new and most important appendix in Gods purpose to the old covenant of grace. The question was permitted to be asked by Abraham, (by Abraham not in his individual character, I conceive, but as the representative and federal head, like Adam before him, of his seed interested in the promised inheritance,) Lord God, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it (the land)?  And, as in answer, God told him that his seed (his natural seed evidently) should, after 400 years, come out in the fourth generation, and, as a nation, occupy that same land of Canaan.  This therefore was to be after Abraham himself, and Isaac too, had died. So that there now opened before him the vista of a new line of covenant-promise, not annulling or superseding,  but only co-ordinate with, and corroborative of, the older covenant-promise:  - the new promise being that of his natural seed as a living nation occupying the earthly Canaan; as if for an actual guarantee, and sign to perpetual generations, of his spiritual seed (the holy election of grace out of the natural seed  ) at length after death, and through the medium of a resurrection, inheriting the same Canaan, in some way at length made heavenly, and with God himself revealed therein as their God.  Besides which important object, this new national dispensation was made subservient in a thousand ways both to illustrate, and as a schoolmaster to train up the people for participation in, the earlier covenant of heavenly promise: setting forth, as appeared afterwards in its wonderful ritual and code of law, so strikingly as probably nothing else could have done, the vastness of the alienation caused by Adams sin between a holy God and sinful man, and consequent vastness of the difficulty of effecting what the original covenant implied, in respect of mans (and inclusively the creations) restoration and reconciliation: and the need consequently of an all-perfect atoner, mediator, and purifier, such as might indeed do the work, and realize the wonderful ideas, now first fully set forth, of redemption and a redeemer. - No wonder that the faithful servants of God in every age should have found in the varying history of the Jewish nation, - of its rebellions and its punishments, - its stubbornness, - its repentances and its partial restorations, - types of their own spiritual history, and of Gods unwearied faithfulness in his covenant to save.  That nation, and its natural history, seem to have been almost set forth to Abraham, in Gods first announcement concerning it, as a sign and type of the spiritual history, and ultimate spiritual blessedness, of the spiritual seed. I say a sign of its ultimate spiritual blessedness. For the final and ultimate view of the natural Israel, (as well as of the spiritual,) as predicated in all prophecy concerning it, - from the prophecies by Moses  to those by Christ  and St. Paul,  - was that of its ultimate blessed union with God; though not till after a long and fearful æra of alienation and judgment, and the temporary passing away in consequence of the supremacy and glory from Israel.
And here then there might naturally arise a question with the believer of old, as he looked forward into the distant future, Would there be any coincidence in respect of time, as well as of earthly scene, between the fulfillments of the ultimate blessings predicted in respect of either covenant? - in other words, a synchronization of the spiritual Israels resurrection from the dead, in order to its inheritance both of a renovated earth and of God himself its Redeemer, with the natural Israels restoration to their renovated land and to the favor of their Redeemer God? A question this, bearing directly, the reader will see, on the point of our present investigation: and to which the scripture answer, I believe, is this, that the chronological connection of the two consummations was a thing intended; and neither unforeshown to, nor unforeseen by, the saints of God, alike before, and at, and after, the time of Christ. - I proceed to give proof of this; and shall endeavor in doing so to keep the national Israels promised ultimate happiness in view, as distinguished from the renovated worlds ultimate happiness, which is to be the subject of my next head: though indeed the one is so mixed up with the other, that it is hard to keep the view of the two altogether distinct and separate.
1. The intimated synchronism of the spiritual Israels resurrection from the dead with the restoration of the natural Israel to Gods favor and their own land.
On Moses views in this matter there is scarce evidence sufficient to enable us to pronounce: though it seems that he understood the distinction of the two covenant-promises; and, as one written in Gods book of the living,  looked himself for the reward of the same heavenly country as his fathers:  a country identified almost by the very language of his law  with that earthly Canaan to which, in fulfillment of the lesser promise made to Abraham, and in type of the future spiritual seeds great Prophet and Leader,  he was now conducting the nation of Israel. - But, passing onward in Jewish history, in the writings of David (Christs most eminent type in the kingly, as Moses in the prophetic character) an expectation does, I think, appear of this synchronism; even as by one who had been taught the secret of Gods covenant.  Himself raised to be king of Israel, and foreknowing that he was to be the father according to the flesh, as well as the royal type, of King Messiah, (the selfsame seed of the woman, and seed of Abraham, that had been promised to Adam and to Abraham,) that Messiahs ultimate reign of glory, after certain previous and mysterious sufferings,  was a subject on which he loved to dwell. And he thus spoke of it: - viz. as a reign that would be established on earth,  a manifestation of his personal glory accompanying its introduction;  with the gathering of his saints to Him, such as had made a covenant with Him by sacrifice,  and an act and process also before heaven and earth of some tremendous judgment by fire, and opening of the pit of hell, upon the wicked:  - the result being a most blessed and universal reign of righteousness: Zion, now at length restored and rebuilt, forming the central point of the Messiahs manifestation,  with the seed of his servants to inherit it, and Israel now gathered from among the heathen:  and, on the view of this judgment, and report from Zion of his glory, the conversion of the distant heathen following, and so the whole earth becoming filled with his glory.  Now among his seed of blessed inheritors, and saints then gathered to the King Messiah, as joined in covenant with Him by sacrifice, it would seem that David himself (who on earth felt as a stranger and pilgrim, like his fathers,  ) expected to have a part. For, when contrasting in one place death feeding on the wicked, and the upright having dominion over them in the morning, while their beauty consumed in Hades as its proper dwelling, he expresses his belief of God redeeming his soul individually from the power of the grave:  and moreover elsewhere uses the same phrase, the morning, cat´ exochn, to express the time of Gods ultimate deliverance of Israel, and overthrow of evil on the earth.  To which it may be added that, having in one place spoken of his own waking up after Gods likeness (evidently at the resurrection) as the supreme object of his satisfaction,  he yet elsewhere notices the establishment of Messiahs kingdom on earth as the ultimate object of his prayers;  and in yet another place, connectedly with a description of the same earthly reign of King Messiah, Gods having made an everlasting covenant with himself, ordered in all things and sure, the which was all his salvation and all his desire. 
In the Prophets after David the same coincidence of time between Israels restoration and the saints resurrection is also expressed, only much more clearly. Take, for example, Isaiahs prophecy (already elsewhere cited by me,  in illustration of the circumstantials attendant on Israels restoration) in his chapters xxiv.-xxvii. He there speaks of some terrible shaking of the earth under Gods judgment, and the host of the high ones, and kings of the earth, being then as prisoners gathered into the pit of their prison; of the contemporaneous reigning of the Lord of hosts in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, before his ancients, with a glory that should make the sun itself ashamed: of the Lords then opening to all people a feast of fat things, and destroying the veil of the covering cast over them, and swallowing up death in victory, and wiping away tears from off all the earth, and punishing with his great and strong sword the crooked serpent, and purging away the iniquity of Jacob, and causing them that come of Jacob to take root, and Israel to blossom and bud, and fill the earth with fruit. When partially citing this prophecy before, the reference of which to the final restoration of the national Israel seems hardly to be mistaken, I left the question as to what swallowing up of death in victory might be intended, and whether in a literal or a figurative resurrection, an open question. It is now my place to answer it. And the answer is already at hand, as given by the Apostle St. Paul; who as expressly identifies the fulfillment of those words, He shall swallow up death in victory, with the time of the saints resurrection,  as the prophet identifies it with that of the natural Israels restoration: at the same time that the other details of the prophecy are, I may say, almost the same, point by point, as those in the Apocalyptic prefiguration of the events introducing the Millennium.  To the same effect are the prophecies in Isaiahs two last chapters, also cited in my last preceding Chapter: where the restoration of Israel is connected with the creation of new heavens and a new earth, like those in the Apocalypse; and moreover with that punishment of transgressors, of which Christ also speaks as of a punishment to be adjudged at his coming,  viz. the worm that never dieth, and the fire that is never quenched.  Further evidence might be easily added from the same evangelic prophet, did my limits permit. But it may be better to pass on now to two or three of the other prophets. - And first to Isaiahs contemporary, Hosea. The iniquity of Ephraim, says he, with reference to the time of Israels ultimate repentance and restoration, is bound up; his sin is hid: the sorrows of a travailing woman shall come upon him: he is an unwise son: for he should not stay long in the place of the breaking-forth of children. I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death; O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction.  And what this redemption from death? That of the nation in figurative sense of the phrase? Not so. Again St. Paul may be cited,  in proof of the literal resurrection of the saints being the thing meant in the latter verses; and consequently of the chronological coincidence of this their resurrection from the grave with Israels restoration.  - Next turn we to Ezekiels celebrated vision of the dry bones.  And here, if the case be more equivocal, yet I may observe that according to the exposition of the earlier Christian Fathers,  derived in part perhaps from the earlier Jewish Rabbins, those bones and that resurrection are to be construed, not simply of the living Jewish people, and their fall and resuscitation, but of the Jewish saints departed also, and their literal bodily resurrection, in common with Christian saints, at the time of Israels restoration.  - Yet once more, (to close my Old Testament citations,) I must refer to two of the famous prophecies of Daniel. The first is that in Dan. vii.; which prefigured the four great persecuting empires that, commencing from the time of Israels unfaithfulness, and consequent temporary rejection by God, would in succession hold the worlds supremacy; until at length, after the destined 1260 days (or years) of the last of the four, in its last or antichristian form, judgment should be given to the saints of the Most High, and the time come for the saints possessing the kingdom: - possessing it, mark well,  for ever and for ever: their everlasting kingdom thus dating from the fall of Antichrist. The second that of Dan. xii., which depicted the two events of the resurrection of the just, so as to shine as the sun in the firmament, and Israels last trouble and deliverance, as occurring each and either near about the end of the same 1260 days, or years, of Antichrists abomination of desolation: the declaration being made in chronological terms yet more exact, that at the end of the 1335 days, or years, 75 days or years beyond the former, the time of blessedness would begin; and Daniel himself stand in his lot (i.e. his inheritance.  ) at the end of those days. 
I have hinted that it was thus that the Jewish expositors that lived between the return from Babylon and destruction of Jerusalem understood the passage cited: in proof of which statement I subjoin a few extracts.  And though a different construction has been put upon them by ancient as well as modern anti-premillennarians, as if they were simply prophecies of the revival and resuscitation of Israel, (as well as of the world with it,) from a state of national and religious depression,  still, while allowing that this is in part their subject, (and its being so is of course an essential point in my argument,) yet I cannot but think that the Jews rightly viewed them as including also predictions of the literal resurrection of the saints literally dead, contemporaneously with Israels figurative resuscitation. For, in some cases at least, the language  seems all but unequivocal; and the apostolic comment fixes the sense in others. 
And so the promise came down to New Testament times, - the promise of the worlds renovation, Abrahamic inheritance, and establishment of Messiahs kingdom, all in supposed connection with the promise to the national Israel. And both in the gospel-narratives of Christs own life and ministry, and in the apostolic records afterwards, we shall I think find recognition of the current supposition, as really true.
At the very outset, on the infant Jesus presentation in the temple, the priestly seer who recognized in him the promised seed of the woman, and seed of Abraham, and Son of David, in whom all the families of the earth were to be blessed, was inspired thus to declare the literal Israels foreseen share in the blessing; (I say literal Israel, because expressly distinguished from the Gentiles;) viz. that he was to be the light of the Gentiles, and the glory of Gods people Israel: the latter however not till after he had been first the occasion of fall, and then afterwards of rising again (in the figurative sense evidently), to many in Israel.  And, so to the time of that rising again and glorification of his disciples, Ye which have followed me shall in the regeneration, when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of his glory,  sit also upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel,  seemed surely to fix it as that of the saints resurrection. For how, at an epoch of time distant ages afterwards, could the twelve disciples be present, and have rule over the tribes of Israel, except only by a resurrection from the dead; that same which Christ elsewhere  in remarkable manner designated distinctively as the resurrection of the just? To the same effect was Christs statement, just before his passion, that Jerusalem should be trodden by the Gentiles till the times of the Gentiles were fulfilled: (i.e. probably the times of the four Gentiles dominant empires of Daniels prophecy:) especially as compared with another cognate prediction of his, Your house is left unto you desolate; for ye shall not see me henceforth till ye shall say, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord.  For, whereas in the former of these two prophecies alike its connection with the disciples previous question, What shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world, and also the almost immediately consequent context describing variously Christs acts of judgment on his second coming,  might seem to mark the ending epoch of Jerusalems treading down by the Gentiles as the epoch also of Christs second and glorious advent, - in the other prophecy the ending of Jerusalems desolation was pretty plainly hinted at as the foreseen epoch of the repentant Jews visibly recognizing the true Messiah in Jesus whom they had pierced: which recognition St. John expressly associates with his glorious second coming in the clouds, and every eye seeing him.  Nor should we omit to observe that after Christs resurrection, and when He had been speaking to the disciples on the things pertaining to the kingdom of God, upon their asking him, Wilt thou at this time restore the kingdom to Israel, as if there were truth in the then commonly received Jewish view of the establishment of Gods or Christs kingdom on earth, Christ did not correct them in the idea, but only told them that it was not for them to know the times and seasons.  - And as the Master, so too the Apostles afterwards. First and foremost St. Peter in that most remarkable address to the Jews, within but a few days after the descent of the Holy Spirit, Repent ye, and be converted, that times of refreshing may come, and he may send Jesus, &c.; as if the epoch of the Jews repentance and conversion was to be the epoch of Christs return from heaven: a passage however which I prefer to consider in detail under my next head, as having prominent reference to the times of the worlds universal restoration and happiness, as well as to the Jews restoration in particular. And so again in various places the Apostle St. Paul. Such, e.g. was the purport of his declaration before Agrippa, that he was judged for the hope of the promise made of God to the fathers; to the which promise the twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and night, hoped to come;  compared with his previous saying, Of the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question.  For there can be no doubt that the promise to which the hopes of the twelve tribes were instantly directed, was that of the restoration of the kingdom to Israel: which event consequently was thus distinctly associated by the Apostle with the resurrection of the just. Besides which we have, as before said, his comment in 1 Cor. xv. 54, 55 on certain prophecies already cited from Isaiah xxv. and Hosea xiii., which seem plainly to refer to the time, circumstances, and blessedness of the literal Israels restoration:  a comment expounding them as what would be fulfilled at the time, and in the fact, of the departed saints glorious resurrection, and living saints glorious change and rapture, to meet the Lord Jesus in the air at his second coming.
Such is my first head of argument. - The anti-premillennarians of course present a very different view of the whole subject. Thus, as regards the Abrahamic covenant, there was no local interest in Canaan, they contend, given to Abraham himself, or to his spiritual seed. Abraham expected Cananaan for his posterity, and a mansion in heaven for himself.  But, except as contained in the promise of Canaan,  where, let me ask, was local promise given him of heaven?  And how was he to be heir of the world? The renovated earth (inclusive of its atmospheric heaven) seemed ever hinted at as the local scene of the saints inheritance.  Which being so, why should not that one part of the new earth be peculiarly the scene of Christs manifestation; i.e. peculiarly heavenly? - Again, as regards those passages cited from the prophets, in which predictions that the New Testament explains of the resurrection time and state are connected with predictions of the earthly happiness of the restored Jews and Jerusalem, this connection of the two, it is said, does not imply their synchronism: but arises only out of the comprehensive glancings of prophecy, embracing and interlacing together in its view the whole history and results of Christs redemption, in its various chief stages of development; from that of its first promulgation by Christ to that of its universal reception in the world on the Jews conversion, and then yet further that of the post-millennial stage of the redeemed saints heavenly and everlasting blessedness following their resurrection.  And, no doubt, sometimes there are comprehensive glancings at, and interminglings of different future æras in prophecy. But in various chief passages urged by me, it is not a mere intermingling of subject that we find, but a direct chronological synchronization of the saints resurrection and resurrection state with the earthly blessedness of the restored Jews and Jerusalem. So e.g. in Hosea xiii. 12-14; The iniquity of Ephraim is bound up: his sin is hid: the sorrows of a travailing woman shall come upon him: he should not stay long in the place of the breaking forth of children. I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death. O death, I will be thy plagues: O grave, I will be thy destruction. Repentance shall be hid from my eyes. So again in Isaiah lxv., lxvi. Behold I create new heavens and a new earth; and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind. But be glad and rejoice for ever in that which I create: for I create Jerusalem a rejoicing and her people a joy. . . . And I will take of your brethren for priests and Levites, saith the Lord. For, as the new heavens and new earth which I will make shall remain before me, so shall your seed and name remain: &c. So, yet again, in Dan. xii. 13; And thou Daniel shall stand in thy lot at the end of the days: i.e. of the 1335 days, or years, measured from the beginning of Antichrist, when Israels final trial was to end in its final deliverance. Surely nothing but violence can set aside the synchronism of the resurrection state of the saints, and restoration state of the converted Israel, as exprest in such passages. - Once more, in regard to New Testament passages like that in Matt. xix. 28, which associate the apostles and the twelve tribes of Israel together, as the rulers and ruled in Christs glorious kingdom, the following counter-view is given; - The world and the Church shall (at the last day) be judged according to their doctrines.  But can the sitting as assessors in the judicial condemnation of unbelieving Jews be really the reward to his apostles here intended by Christ?
2. Next mark the predicted synchronism of Christs advent and the saints resurrection with the time of the promised blessedness of the world: - a subject, as before observed,  intermingled in sacred prophecy with the promises just considered to Israel;  but which for distinctness sake, in regard of a few chief New Testament prophecies, I think it well here to consider separately.
As a first example, then, take that passage from Matt. xix. 28, already cited by me to illustrate the Jewish bearing of the question under my preceding head, which makes mention of the great future expected paliggenesia or regeneration. For what the paliggenesia spoken of but the state when Christ shall make all thing new,  and this earth be restored again to Paradisiacal blessedness?  In which state, however, and over which renovated earth, Christ here declares that the apostles shall together with their Lord, have the authority and government:  a connection and rule scarcely explicable except on the supposition of their previous resurrection in order to entering on it.
My second passage is that notable one in St. Peters sermon, Acts iii. 19, on occasion of the miraculous restoration of the lame man by the temple-gate, just after the Holy Spirits effusion on the day of Pentecost, and which was also cursorily cited by me under my former head on account of what there is of Jewish allusion in it: - Repent ye, therefore, and be converted, to the end that your sins may be blotted out; that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and he may send Jesus Christ which before was ordained (proceceirismenon) for you: whom the heavens must receive until the times of restitution of all things, of which God hath spoken by the mouth of his holy prophets since the world began. A passage this of such decisive bearing on the point in hand, that it is impossible to give it too careful a consideration. I subjoin therefore the best critical text in the original;  and in order to its correct understanding premise the three critical remarks following: - 1st, that in the second clause my rendering that the times of refreshing may come, instead of the authorized versions when the times, is just the most natural, if not necessary, rendering of the original Greek:  - 2ndly, that the word restoration or restitution, in our received English version, is also the most accurate expression of the sense of the Greek apocatastasiv in verse 21, accordantly alike with its etymological intent, and frequent use both in Scripture and elsewhere:  - 3rdly, that the antecedent of the relative wn in the same verse, which, in so far as the grammatical structure of the sentence is concerned, might be either the pantwn or the cronwn  seems clearly determined by the sense of the sentence to be the word cronwn, times: because if we took the pantwn, there would then be needed, in order to avoid absurdity, a restriction in the sense of the pantwn  quite unnatural. Let me also premise that the times of refreshing in the first clause  would seem to be the same with the times of restitution in the second: only one great æra of refreshing being foretold; and that in connection with Messiahs glorious earthly reign. Which four points admitted, the intent of the apostles expostulatory address to the Jews is as follows:  - Repent ye, in order that the Messiah Jesus may come again from heaven; and the times of refreshing and restitution begin which have been the favorite theme of all the prophets: the order and concatenation, that is, a series of events connected like links in a chain -of events in Gods purpose being this, that your conversion to him is to be the occasion of his return; and his return, as the Jews reconciled Messiah to be the introduction of the times of refreshing. Thus expounded the passage assumes a decided premillennarian form. - And what the anti-premillennarian mode of evading its force? Dr. Whitby, and after him Faber and others, have tried to escape from it by a totally different rendering of apocatastasiv, as if meaning fulfillment, not restitution, and construction of the twn with pantwn as its antecedent: the result being a translation and sense as follows, Whom the heavens must receive till the times of the fulfillment of all things that the prophets have spoken; this all including, argue they, the millennium itself, and so fixing Christs second advent as post-millennial. But this rendering of apocatastasiv is quite untenable: and would indeed if admitted, with its connected pantwn, involve (unless doubly restricted)  the postponement of Christs second coming, not only till after the millennium, but till after the general judgment and everlasting happiness of Gods people; seeing that that general judgment and final blessedness is one of the things that the prophets have spoken of . - Mr. Brown, with better tact, admits the usual rendering of apocatastasiv; and contends not for the conjunction of wn with pantwn, rather than cronwn.  But he argues from the imperfection which he supposes to attend the millennary state itself that it cannot be regarded as the restitution of all things; and that for such a restitution we must look to the creation of the new heavens and earth beyond the millennium: there being however previously times of refreshing, answering to the Jubilean times of Old Testament prophecy, and the millennial of the Apocalypse; which times St. Peter expected would begin with the Jews conversion: and that Jesus Christ would descend from heaven at their termination: and then, and so, the restitution of all things take place. But, passing over just now, and till my 4th main Head, (though not without protest,) Mr. Bs unscriptural view, as I cannot but regard it, of the imperfection of the millennary state, let me here observe, 1. that the times of refreshing seem to be as much connected by Peter with Christs return to earth as the times of restitution:  2. that prophecy connected the restitution of all things with Elias coming;  and that his coming and ministry was assuredly understood to be introductory to the Jews restoration and conversion, not 1000 years after it: 3rdly, that, as before shown by me, Isaiahs new heavens and earth, and attendant restoration of all things, were prophesied of as synchronic with the earthly Jerusalems restoration and blessedness. - Thus, if I mistake not, Mr. Browns post-millennarian construction, distinguishing the times of refreshing from those of the restitution [or regeneration] of all things, and making the one to precede Christs coming, the other to follow it, breaks down as entirely as Whitbys and Fabers.  And the very striking evidence of St. Peters statement, taken in its most natural sense, remains unshaken; to the effect that Israels conversion is to synchronize with, or immediately precede, Christs return from heaven, his risen saints of course accompanying him; and the restoration of this fallen world, with the blessed times of refreshing told of by all the prophets, to follow as its immediate consequence.
My third passage is that notable one in Rom. viii. 18, &c., which defines the destined epoch of the creations deliverance from corruption, as coincident with the manifestation of the sons of God. - St. Paul had been speaking of Christs true disciples, alike Gentiles and Jews, (for the mystery had now broken on the apostles of the equal admission of believing Gentiles to the spiritual blessings of the Abrahamic covenant,) as those with whose spirits the Holy Spirit itself witnessed that they were children of God; and how, if children, they would be then heirs, heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ; if so be that they suffered with him that they might be also glorified together. Then he thus goes on:  - For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. For the earnest expectation of the creature  waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God. For the creature was made subject to vanity, (not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same,  ) in hope; - because the creature itself shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption, into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together, until now. And not only they, but ourselves also which have the first-fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body. - Now, on one point that has been controverted in this passage, viz. the meaning of the word ctisiv, rendered creature and creation, I am not careful. Unquestionably it may mean the whole visible earthly creation, animate and inanimate. And if it be so understood here, as the early Christian Fathers did in fact understand it,  and I think not without reason, then the premillennial conclusion I contend for follows immediately: the restoration of this lower world to its original paradisiacal state, and freedom from the curse consequent on mans sin, (if only we are to believe the prophetic accounts of the earths blessedness on Israels conversion,) being in that case made to succeed after the redemption of the body,  and visible glorification of the predestinated children of God;  in other words, upon and after their resurrection.  - But the word may mean also, as Whitby would have it, and as I am content for present arguments sake to admit, the rational creation of God in this world, that is mankind, simply and alone.  In regard of whom the earnest expectation attributed to them by the apostle is well explained by Whitby: desire and expectation being, as he says, ascribed in the sacred dialect to creatures in reference to things they want, and which tend to their advantage, though they explicitly know nothing of them.  Now, this being premised, we have only to mark carefully two particulars in the passage, in order to see that still the same conclusion as before follows from it. The one point is the distinction in it between the creature (i.e. mankind generally) spoken of, and the saints, or predestinated children of God, in particular: - a distinction expressed by the apostle,  as well as implied through the whole context. The other point is the object of the creatures expectation; - I mean of the creature as distinguished from Christs elect saints. We, says the apostle, wait for the adoption, the redemption of our body. But the creature (or creation) generally has its earnest expectation bent upon the manifestation of the sons of God. Manifestation of whom? I pray the reader to mark this point. Clearly of the glorified saints, the predestinated sons of God. And to whom? Not surely a manifestation of them to themselves, (for who ever heard of a revelation or manifestation of oneself in this manner to oneself?) but to angels, to men, to the universe: more especially to that same creature, or creation, whose longing expectation is directed thereto, and which is thereupon to receive its blessing and deliverance. - Anti-premillennial expositors have too generally overlooked this in their comments; and confound the saints hope with that of the creation.  Taking it in its proper construction, the premillennial cogency or logic of the apostles statement is evident. Nor do I see how there can be escape from it, except in a depreciation of the worlds millennary Jubilean state such as Mr. Brown contends for; but against which I must again protest as unscriptural, till noticing it more directly. In sooth or truth is it credible, that in the times of millennial bliss and holiness the saints will go on groaning, and travailing in pain together, even as now? 
Let me just add, fourthly, ere I pass on from the present head, that this result to the creation in general from the manifestation of the glorified saints, (the children of God, and so children of the resurrection,)  seems to be the same that our Lord intended in a most observable, but, as I conceive, too often misapprehended and misapplied passage, in his intercessory prayer, John xvii. 23. I pray not, says he in the first instance, for the world, but for them which thou hast given me out of the world;  i.e. the election of grace. For which last his final prayer was,  that they might all be one, (evidently at the time of their glorification,  the only time of perfect unity which the Bible holds out to the Church of the faithful,  and that they might see and partake of his glory; of course after their resurrection. Then follows a notice, twice over, of the foreseen effect of this their conjoint glorification on the world: (it is to this I was alluding:) verse 21, that the world may believe that thou hast sent me; verse 23, that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them as thou hast loved me.
Thus do these four notable passages concur to establish the 2nd synchronism contended for; viz. that of our earths predicted Jubilean blessedness with the manifestation of Christs risen and glorified saints at his second coming.
3. To the same effect is St. Pauls synchronization, in his famous prophecy about the Man of Sin, of the time of Christs second coming, and the contemporary gathering of both dead and living saints, to meet him, with that of the destruction of the said Man of Sin, or Antichrist.
For let but the prophecy be considered. We beseech you, brethren, concerning (so the world is  ) the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together unto Him,  that ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. Let no man deceive you by any means. For that day shall not come except there come first the apostasy;  and that man of sin be revealed the son of perdition, who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, &c. . . And now ye know what withholdeth, that He might be revealed in his time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he that now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way. And then shall that Wicked One be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming.  - What, we ask preliminarily, was the occasion of this prophecy? The first verse that I have quoted expressly and professedly defines it. The Thessalonian Christians were agitated under an impression (whencesoever (or from whatever source) originating  that the day of Christs advent (parousia) --- was imminent.  [Editor: Strongs: (602) ajpoka>luyiv, .ap-ok-al-oop-sis; disclosure: appearing, coming, lighten, manifestation, be revealed] (let my readers well observe) which was associated in the apostles and the Thessalonian Christians minds with the saints episunagwgh or gathering to Him. And how does St. Paul meet and correct it? By telling them that some great and famous apostasy must first intervene: - an apostasy of which the seeds were even then sown and germinating; and which would at length have the Man of Sin as its child and head: not till the end of whose reign would Christs expected advent occur; the glory of that advent being in fact the Man of Sins extinguisher and destruction. - And what then the nature of this his parousia, or advent, personal or providential? Surely it were nothing less than violence to the sacred text to explain it as any other than his promised personal second advent. Four times is the expression used in this sense in St. Pauls former Epistle to the Thessalonians; and in this sense exclusively and alone.  And then, - after solemn reversion in the first Chapter of the 2nd Epistle to the same great subject,  - in the first and introductory verse of this second Chapter, St. Pauls connection with it of the episunagwgh, or gathering of the saints into Christs presence, fixes the same meaning on the parousia or advent of Christ there mentioned: (for what gathering could this be but that spoken of 1 Thess. iv. 16, 17 previously, as to take place at the saints resurrection?)  and, by necessary consequence, (considering not the proximity,) of the two clauses only , but their argumentative connection ,) on the parousia in verse 8 also; whereat and whereby the Man of Sin, Paul declared, was to be destroyed. - In effect few anti-premillennarian expositors contest the personal character of the parousia in verse 1. Alike Whitby allows this;  and also Scott, Brown and others. On what principle, then, can they have justified to themselves the giving it in verse 8 a quite different meaning: whether, as Whitby, that of Christs coming providentially to destroy Jerusalem;  or, as Schott, Faber, and Brown, that of his coming, still providentially, not personally, to inflict judgment on the apostate Roman Empire? On none, most assuredly, but that of escaping from the pre-millennial inference necessarily consequent on their giving the word the same meaning. - I say necessarily consequent. For, admitting the parousia to be Christs second personal coming, it follows instantly and necessarily that there can intervene no millennium of universal holiness and gospel-triumph before it. The whole interval between St. Pauls time and Christs second coming is represented in this comprehensive sketch as occupied and spanned, from beginning to end, by the great apostasy: - an apostasy which, as I before said, was even then, in St. Pauls time, sown and secretly germinating; - then destined soon to break out into fuller development; - then to reach its culminating point in the headship and domination of the Man of Sin, the Papal Antichrist;  - and, under that domination, to continue and prevail, even unto his and its destruction by the brightness of Christs own personal second coming. 
So St. Paul; very like Daniel before him. And let me suggest, ere passing forward, how their respective prophecies of Antichrists overthrow by Christs coming do, on this point, mutually support and illustrate each other. In St. Paul it must needs be Christs personal coming, because it is that on which the gathering of the saints takes place round him. In Daniels it must needs be the same; as that which begins the saints eternal reign in Christs kingdom. 
4. With all which perfectly agrees what Christ tells us in his Parable of the Tares and Wheat of the two destined states and stages of his kingdom: the one, while preached preparatorily on earth, ever mixed, imperfect, defiled: - the other pure and glorious, after purification by fire, and the manifestation in it of the King and his saints in glory.
The kingdom of heaven, He said, would in its earthly history resemble a field sown with wheat, then, by an enemy, with tares. These both were to grow together intermixed, - the tares with the wheat, the wheat with the tares, - until the harvest; that was, until the end of the world, or rather of the worlds present aiwn. Then at length (not before) the tares should be eradicated. As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire, so shall it be at the end of the age. (en th sunteleia tou aiwnov.) The Son of Man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; and shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. Then shall the righteous  shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. - What is here said respecting the righteous as then shining forth like the sun in Gods kingdom,  fixes the epoch as that of the resurrection of such as shall have been previously numbered with the righteous dead. For the glory of the saints living at the time of Christs coming, and end of the present aiwn, is not to anticipate that of them that sleep;  nor the glory of the latter to begin till their resurrection.  And that there can have been no millennium previously, such as Whitbys hypothesis supposes, follows surely from Christs statement of the mixture of tares and wheat continuing in the gospel-field uninterruptedly up to it. - Mr. Brown indeed argues strongly, that the millennial state is one of imperfection; and so, still, of tares and wheat. But does prophecy so depict it? We read that then the people shall be all righteous; all individually knowing the Lord, from the least to the greatest; as well as with the knowledge of him outwardly covering the earth as the waters cover the sea; just in fulfillment of the Churchs prayer for ages, May thy kingdom come, may thy will be done on earth even as it is done in heaven; - also that there will be then no anomia; the anomov and the mystery of anomia having been destroyed with Antichrist: nor any scandals; for they shall not hurt in all my holy mountain. Can this suit the state of the intermixed tares and wheat; with anomia and scandala ever continued onward, (Matt. xiii. 41,) till the fire purges them out? - Admit that with earths inhabitants, in consequence of the continued Adamic taint, holiness will in one sense not be absolutely perfect. That will not constitute them tares.  Christs true servants now, though imperfect, and with the taint of natural corruption remaining in them, are yet wheat, not tares. And so, I conceive, only with much less of imperfection, there will be only what then, according to the prophetic word, and no tares. How indeed could there well grow that which is the produce of the Wicked Ones sowing, at a time when the Wicked One is shut up and sealed, as in Apoc. xx. 3, from deceiving and tempting men any more?
5. A fifth argument against Whitbys theory of the post-millennial resurrection of the saints, and in favor of that of their premillennial rising at Christs coming, to take part in his millennary reign, (for his appearing and kingdom synchronize,  ) is soon stated, but I think of great weight; viz. that this resurrection, glorification, and participation in his kingdom are uniformly noted, I believe, as the reward of hard service, suffering, conflict. Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations, and I appoint unto you a kingdom, &c.:  - The kingdom of heaven suffereth violence:  - If we suffer with Him that we may be also glorified together:  Our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory:  He that overcometh shall inherit all things:  &c. &c. So the faithful companions of the typical Davids time of hardship, exile, and suffering, had the fit rewards of office and promotion on his establishment in the kingdom. But can the righteous in the millennial dispensation come under the same category of hard service and suffering for Christ?  To whom, however, Whitbys theory would equally assign a part in the first resurrection, and Messiahs kingdom of glory.
6. I might add perhaps yet another argument, of a quite different and chronological character, from the term sabbatism applied by St. Paul to the departed saints expected rest.  For if the word indicate, so as it might seem to do, (at least to the Hebrew Christians to whom St. Pauls Epistle was addressed,) some septenary of time, - the which could scarce be any other than the seventh millennium of the world,  - then, without entering at all minutely into chronological details, it is evident from our present actual position near the end, on the lowest computation, of the worlds sixth millennary,  that were we to postpone its commencement yet a thousand years, - in other words, were we to admit of a millennium of earthly bliss still intervening before the departed saints entrance on their promised blessedness, then their rest, even though this Millennium were to begin instantly, would be postponed long after the opening of the seventh millennary; and consequently be, in the then generally understood sense of the term, no sabbatism.  - But the more exact consideration of this last argument, as well as of the ancient Jewish and Christian Fathers opinion concerning it, will find perhaps its fitter place in my concluding Chapter. I therefore till then reserve it.
So my premillennial argument ends. I conclude on the evidence of General Scripture Testimony, just as I did before on that of the Apocalyptic passage itself, that Whitbys theory is as untenable as those of Augustine and Grotius, and that the only true one is the literal: - which theory, held by the earliest Fathers, has been lately revived among us,  and been embraced by most modern prophetic expositors of note:  as well as by many others also whose studies, though not directly prophetic, have yet bordered on the subject; such as Mr. Greswell  and the late learned Bishop Van Mildert.  - For my own part I cannot but feel much struck at the consistency, as well as variety, of the evidence in its favor. If evidence has been brought from Scripture to show the synchronization of the saints resurrection alike with Israels conversion and restoration, - with the worlds restoration to paradisiacal blessedness, - and with Antichrists destruction also, - it seems to appear from quite other Scriptures that these various events, which thus synchronize with it, are likewise to synchronize with each other: viz. Israels restoration with the earths restoration, and each and earlier with Antichrists destruction.  - Nor can I help observing also on the consistency of the Apocalyptic statement, thus explained, respecting the first and second resurrection, with St. Pauls famous declaration on a similar subject in 1 Cor. xv. 23, 34, &c.: - But every man in his own order: Christ the first-fruits: afterward  they that are Christs at his coming: then cometh the end,  when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power: for he must reign till he hath put all enemies under his feet. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. In this passage three several distinct epochs, as if with intervals of time between them,  appear to be marked; that of Christs own resurrection, - that of the saints resurrection at his coming, - and that finally of his destroying the last enemy, death. All which seems exactly to correspond with our Apocalyptic theory of the saints resurrection taking place premillennially on Christs second coming, long after his own resurrection; and then, at the interval of yet a thousand years, on the completion of the resurrection, Christs finally casting Death and Hades into the lake of fire. - On Whitbys theory the duration of the eita of St. Paul would reduced to a nothing.
Yet a word or two ere I conclude this Chapter, on certain chief difficulties, not yet touched on, urged against it.
1. And, 1st, as to the difficulty which has been supposed to arise out of St. Peters description  of the earths being burnt up at Christs second coming, before the promised new heavens and new earth: and consequent impossibility of that new earths having living inhabitants in the flesh remaining on it.
Now on this I must beg to remark, first and foremost, that by St. Peters words, We, according to his promise, look for new heavens and a new earth, &c., the new heavens and earth, that he alluded to were identified with the new heavens and earth promised in Isa. lxv., lxvi.;  in Isaiahs description of which alike Jews and Gentiles, distinct the one from the other, figure as the still remaining inhabitants; and Judahs city too, the earthly Jerusalem. So that supposing their identity irrefragable or irrefutable, as I believe it to be,  inhabitants in the flesh are declared by Scripture itself to exist upon St. Peters new earth, however preserved to it. - Secondly, let me suggest that the earth of St. Peters conflagration, at its primary outbreak at least,  seems by no means certainly the whole habitable world; any more than the earth covered by the Noachic deluge must be certainly regarded as the whole terraqueous globe; (St. Peters own case of parallelism;) or, in fact, any other than the Roman earth, which we have seen on Apocalyptic evidence is to be destroyed premillennially by fire at the time of Antichrists destruction: - and, in any case, that he who saved a remnant out of the watery deluge, may well be supposed to have his own ways of saving alive a remnant now again out of the deluge of fire. Indeed he intimates as much.  - Thirdly, I am quite unable to understand, were the conflagration postmillennial, how the scoffers just before it, and with the millennium in immediate recollection, could exclaim that all things had continued as they were from the beginning of the creation. - Thus on this head, the anti-premillennarian difficulties seem much the greatest.
2. There is urged the objection that alike Dan. xii. 2 and John v. 28  indicate that the resurrection and judgment of the just and of the unjust are to take place at one and the same time. - But, as regards Daniel, I must suggest that it is more than doubtful whether the Hebrew original of the passage makes any assertion at all about the resurrection of the unjust;  and, as regards St. John, that no inference as to the simultaneousness of the bodily resurrection of the two classes can be justly drawn from the circumstance of their being those conjointly mentioned; any more than the simultaneousness of the spiritual resurrection of all of the spiritually dead who might hear Christs voice, mentioned in the verse preceding.  It is to be remembered that if the resurrection of the just and unjust are here mentioned together, there are many other passages in which the resurrection of the just is spoken of separately; indeed as if constituting the resurrection distinctively.  So that even if from the two passages in John and Daniel, considered by themselves, we might not unreasonably have expected that the resurrection of the just and unjust would synchronize, we might just as reasonably perhaps have anticipated from the others, considered alone, that the resurrection of the just was one peculiar, and would take place separately. Which being the case, and the connection of distant times, as I have said, not unusual in prophecy, it would, I think, be very unsound reasoning to infer a refutation of the literal theory of the first resurrection, (especially evidenced as that theory is,) from this inconclusive passage in St. John, and the yet more inconclusive passage in Daniel. 
3. There is yet a third objection to the premillennial view, which has been urged with much force of late, above all by Mr. Brown. It is to the effect that at Christs second coming (whenever that may take place) Christs Church will be complete, the effective interposition of Christs intercession and the Holy Spirits sanctifying influences terminated; and so the day of salvation past, and the millennial inhabitants of earth lost. - But it seems to me that in the two last inferences Mr. Brown is not warranted by Scripture testimony. The Church of the firstborn,  the bride, may be complete; but it does not follow that none afterwards can be saved. What is said of the kings of the earth walking in the light of the heavenly Jerusalem, seems to me to imply an enjoyment of the blessing by other parties, beside those that constitute Christs bride, the New Jerusalem. The very statement of Christs being a priest upon his throne (if applicable as I think it is, in part at least, to the millennial æra) implies Christs still exercising his intercessory and other priestly functions. And, if I am correct in my view of John xvii. 21, 23  it was a marked point in his earliest intercessory prayer that the worlds believing on him, generally, might be the result of the distinctive manifestation in glory of the Church of his disciples of the present dispensation; - that manifestation which, as all agree, will be only at his second coming. 
 1 John iii. 8.
 Rom. viii. 20. Some commentators prefer to explain this of God, as the judicial subjector of the outward creation of vanity. But it the instrumental cause be meant, it must be either the Devil or Adam, - the tempter to original sin, or the sinner; seeing that the curse on the creation followed the sin. Which of these, is immaterial to my argument.
 By the use of propitiatory sacrifices these early patriarchs expressed their hope in the promise.
 Gen. vi. 18.
 Gen. xii. 3
 Gen. xii. 7.
 Gen. xiii. 15. And so again, xv. 7, xvii. 8. In the former of these two passages the notable term inherit it is introduced for the first time into the Bible; I am the Lord that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to inherit it. In xvii. 8, the strong expression is used; I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession.
 Gen. xxvi. 3, xxviii. 13, xxxv. 12.
 So Gen. xlvi. 4; I will go down with thee (Jacob) into Egypt, and I will also surely bring thee up again: i.e. in his seed. For we can hardly understand the words of the bringing up of his corpse.
 .Viz. St Stephen, Acts vii. 5; And God gave him none inheritance in it, no not so much as to set his foot on: yet he promised that He would give it to him for a possession, and to his seed after him. - Irenæus, v. 32, dwells much on this intent of the promise to Abraham.
 Exod. vi. 4
 Compare the words wherein thou art a stranger, of Gen. xvii. 8, quoted above.
 Gen. xv. 15.
 I do not forget the often restricted use of this phrase. But, admitting Abrahams personal interest in the gift, the restricted use can here scarcely apply.
 Heb. xi. 19.
 en parabolh, ibid.
 Compare Heb. ii. 14.
 Compare Rom. iv. 17; He believed in God that quickeneth the dead, and calleth things which are not, as though they were.
 Heb. xi. 8, 9.
 Rom. iv. 13, For the promise that he should be the heir of the world was not to Abraham, or to his seed, through the law, but through the righteousness of faith.
 Heb. xi. 16. -- Tertullian thinks there may have been a reference to the double blessing to the faithful seed of Abraham, the earthly blessing and the heavenly, in the double comparison of the number of his seed to the sand on earth and the stars in heaven. But now learn that it has been, in fact, predicted by the Creator, and that even without prediction it has a claim upon our faith in respect of the Creator. What appears to be probable to you, when Abrahams seed, after the primal promise of being like the sand of the sea for multitude, is destined likewise to an equality with the stars of heaven are not these the indications both of an earthly and a heavenly. dispensation? When Isaac, in blessing his son Jacob, says, God give thee of the dew of heaven, and the fatness of the earth, are there not in his words examples of both kinds of blessing? Adv. Marcion iii. 25.
Canaan is often spoken of as a type of heaven. But I read not a word of heaven in the promise to Abraham, in local distinction from Canaan.
Compare Justin Martyrs application to Christians of Abrahams call, and of the promise to Abraham.
There will be no other God, O Trypho, nor was there from eternity any other existing (I thus addressed him), but He who made and disposed all this universe. Nor do we think that there is one God for us, another for you, but that He alone is God who led your fathers out from Egypt with a strong hand and a high arm. Nor have we trusted in any other (for there is no other), but in Him in whom you also have trusted, the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob. But we do not trust through Moses or through the law; for then we would do the same as yourselves. But now (for I have read that there shall be a final law, and a covenant, the chiefest of all, which it is now incumbent on all men to observe, as many as are seeking after the inheritance of God. For the law promulgated on Horeb is now old, and belongs to yourselves alone; but this is for all universally. Now, law placed against law has abrogated that which is before it, and a covenant which comes after in like manner has put an end to the previous one; and an eternal and final law namely, Christ has been given to us, and the covenant is trustworthy, after which there shall be no law, no commandment, no ordinance. Have you not read this which Isaiah says: Hearken unto Me, hearken unto Me, my people; and, ye kings, give ear unto Me: for a law shall go forth from Me, and My judgment shall be for a light to the nations. My righteousness approaches swiftly, and My salvation shall go forth, and nations shall trust in Mine arm? And by Jeremiah, concerning this same new covenant, He thus speaks: Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand, to bring them out of the land of Egypt). If, therefore, God proclaimed a new covenant which was to be instituted, and this for a light of the nations, we see and are persuaded that men approach God, leaving their idols and other unrighteousness, through the name of Him who was crucified, Jesus Christ, and abide by their confession even unto death, and maintain piety. Moreover, by the works and by the attendant miracles, it is possible for all to understand that He is the new law, and the new covenant, and the expectation of those who out of every people wait for the good things of God. For the true spiritual Israel, and descendants of Judah, Jacob, Isaac, and Abraham (who in uncircumcision was approved of and blessed by God on account of his faith, and called the father of many nations), are we who have been led to God through this crucified Christ, as shall be demonstrated while we proceed.
 Heb. xi. 10. - Macknight on Heb. vi says that the covenant with Abraham might with great propriety be termed the gospel of the patriarchs and of the Jews.
 Gen. xv. 8.
 Ibid. verse 16. See on this Books Elements, ch. ii.
 So St. Paul, Gal. iii. 17; This, I say, that the covenant that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law which was 430 years after cannot disannal, that it should make the promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the law, it was no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.
 So Rom. iv. 11; He received the sign of circumcision; - a seal of the righteousness of faith, [and of course of the promise thereto attached,] which he had yet being uncircumcised; even of many nations. See Macknight on Rom. ix. 8; also his Essay V., prefixed to the Epistle to the Galatians, Introduction, and § 3.
Compare the sign given to Moses in Exod. iii. 12: a sign of something smaller and yet future, to assure him and his people of the fulfillment of something greater, and which in its full comprehensiveness embraced a yet more distant futurity. So too the sign given by Samuel to Saul, in proof of the latter possessing the kingdom, 1 Sam. x. 2, &c.; that to Hezekiah, 2 Kings xix. 29, and that to Ahaz, Isa. vii. 14, in proof of Gods perpetual purposes of mercy to Judah.
 This admissibility of Gentiles was scarcely revealed.
 This is always expressed, or implied, as the grand glory of the reward; from Gen. xv. 1, Fear not, Abraham, I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward; to Livit. xxvi. 12, I will be your God, and ye shall be my people.
 Compare 1 Cor. x. 6.
 Deut. xxx. 1-9.
 Luke xxi. 24, Matt. xxiii. 39.
 Rom. xi. 25, 26.
 Exod. xxxii. 31; And Moses said unto the Lord, Oh this people have sinned a great sin. . . Yet now if thou wilt forgive their sin - ; and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of the book that thou hast written. And the Lord said unto Moses, Whosoever hath sinned against me, him will I blot out of my book. This book is called in Psalm lxix. 28 and Isa. iv. 3 the book of the living; in Ezek. xiii. 9, the writing of the house of Israel; in Dan. xii. 1, simply the book; (Thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book;) in Phil. iv. 3, and Rev. iii. 5, xx. 15, xxi 27, the book of life; in Luke x. 20, and Heb. xii. 23, a writing in heaven. Compare also Apoc. vii. 4
 Heb. xi. 26.
 The land shall not be sold for ever; for the land is mine: for ye are strangers and sojourners with (before ) me. So Lev. xxv. 23, on the Jubilee.
 Deut. xviii. 15.
 Psalm xxv. 14. I think this was part of the secret.
 Psalm xxii. &c.
 Psalm viii., compared with Heb. ii. 6, &c.; Psalm xlvii., lxxii., xcvii., &c. &c.
 Psalm l. 2, cii. 16, &c.
 Psalm l. 5. Compare 2 Thess. ii. 1.
 Psalm ix. 16, 17; l. 3; xcvii. 3-5, &c.
 Psalm cii. 16, xlviii. 1, 2, 11, lxxxvii. 1, 2, 3, xcvi. 8, xcix. 2, &c.
 Psalm lxix. 36, 1 Chron. xvi. 33, 35.
 Psalms lxxii., xcvi., xcvii., xcviii., &c.
 Psalm xxxix. 12, cxix. 19.
 Psalm xlix. 14, 15. See Marg. This most remarkable passage is quoted by Macknight in his Essay V., prefixed to his Comment on the Galatians, to the same effect.
 Psalm xlvi. 5 (Marg.), God shall help her when the morning appeareth. Compare Psalm cx. 3; where also, perhaps, the resurrection morning may be referred to. So Hancock, Feat of Tab. p. 198.
 Psalm xvii. 15.
 Psalm lxxii. 19, 20; And blessed be his glorious name for ever, and let the whole earth be filled with his glory! Amen and Amen! The prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended.
 2 Sam. xxiii. 1-5.
 p. 62, suprà
 1 Cor. xv. 54.
 Especially the statement of the Lords reigning in Mount Zion before his ancients, or Sanhedrim council, such as appeared seated on the thrones in Apoc. xx. 4, will not be overlooked by the reader. And with it will be compared Zechariahs parallel prophecy of the Lord my God coming (at the time of Israels restoration), and all his saints with him.
 Compare Mark ix. 44, Matt. xiii. 42, xxv. 41.
 Isa. lxvi. 24.
 Hosea xiii. 12-14.
 1 Cor. xv. 55.
 To much the same effect is the prophecy by another contemporary of Isaiahs Micah, ch. v. 3. See my Vol. iii. p. 284, Note 3.
 Ezek. xxxvii.
 For example Irenæus, v. 15, after citing the whole vision in proof of the doctrine of a resurrection, sums up this: Demiurgo et hic vivificante corpora vestra mortua, et resurrectionem eis repromittente, et de sepulchris et monumentis suscitationem et incorruptelam donante. [Isa. xxvi. 19, Thy dead shall live; (together with) my dead body shall they arise; is another Old Testament prophecy here also cited by him.] And so agian v. 34. - Similar to this is Tertullians explanation of the resurrection in Ezekiels vision: though he allows that it may also signify the Jews restoration; (De Resurr. Carn. ch. 30;) and also Cyprians Testim. iii. 58; and that of Cyril Hierosol. Cat. 18. - The Author of the Quest. et Respons. appealed to Justain Martyrs Works, Quæst. 45, unites either view, p. 418.(Ed. Colon.) Hn de epi tou Iezekihl ta panta aptasia, kai ostia, kai h toutwn anastasiv deiknusi de ty profhth tauthn thn optasian o Qeov, prohgoumenwv mev mhnuwn di authvesomenhn dia cristou pantwn kosmekhn anastasin thn ek nekrwn, epeita de kai thn yucagwgean twn Israhlitwn twn Israhletwn twn babulwniwn basileiav. - And so too Augustine in his De Genesi ad Lit. x. 8. For, on first referrring to it, he says: Apud Ezechielem prophetam demonstratur resurrectio mortuorum: but then adds presently after; Etiamsi illo loco non resurrectionem carnis, qualis proprie futura est, sed inopinatam desperati populi reparationem per Spiritum Domini figuratâ revelatione prævidit.
 Let me beg to refer on this to Davison on Prophecy, pp. 270, 511.
 The rather as the argument hence arising has been too generally overlooked.
 klhronomia. See my Note 670, p. 81. And compare Col. i. 12; thn merida tou klhrou twn agewn en ty fwti.
 Dan. 12:13: But go thou thy way <3212> èl"y;till the end <7093>Åqe [be]: for thou shalt rest <5117>j"Wn , and stand <5975> `rm"[;in thy lot <1486>lr;wOG at he end <7093> Åqeof the days <3117>µwOy. The article must be observed. It fixes the meaning to the days just before mentioned, viz. the 1335 days. See my remarks pp. 76-77 suprà
 1. On Hosea vi. 2, After two days will he revive us; in the third day He will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight, the Chaldee Targum (a comment probably of the century before Christ) thus expounds the passage. Vivificabit nos diebus consolationis qui venturi sunt: - die resurrectionis mortuorum suscitabit nos; et vivemus cùm ipso. (Schoettgen, vi. 6.)
2. On Hosea xiv. 8, the Rabbi Eliezer the Great, who is supposed to have lived just after the second temple was built, thus applies it to the pious Jews who seemed likely to die without seeing the glory of Israel; As I live, saith Jehovah, I will raise you up in the time to come, in the resurrection of the dead; and I will gather you with all Israel. (Brooks Elements, p. 36; referring to his Capit. 34.)
3 The Author of the Book of Wisdom, an Alexandrian Jew of one or two centuries probably before the Christian æra, (see Grays Key,) says in chap. iii. verses 7, 8, of the dead; In the time of their visitation they shall shine, and run to and fro like sparks among the stubble; they shall judge the nations, and have dominion over the peoples; and their Lord shall reign for ever.
4. In 2 Maccab. vii. 9, the second of the seven brethren put to death by Antiochus is represented to have said, Thou takest us out of this present life, but the king of the world shall raise us up, who have died for his laws, to everlasting life. The fourth brother (verse 14) said; It is good being put to death by man, to look for hope from God, to be raised up again by him. As for thee thou shalt have no resurrection to life. And the youngest showed that they expected this resurrection to life by virtue of the covenant with Abraham: saying, verse 36, For our brethren who now have suffered a short pain, are dead under Gods covenant of everlasting life. For, says Macknight, Essay v. § 3, prefixed to his Comment on Epistle to the Galatians, What covenant of everlasting life did God ever make with the Jews, promised with an oath to give him and his seed the land of Canaan for an everlasting possession? So, after citation of the passage from the Maccabees.
The author of this Second Book of Maccabees is judged to have lived a century, or thereabouts, before Christ at Alexandria.
5.When the Rabbi Gamaliel (St. Pauls Master) was asked by the Sadducees to prove out of the Scriptures the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, he is said to have cited among other passages, Deut. xi. 21, That thy days may be multiplied, . . in the land which the Lord sware to thy fathers to give them; and xxxi. 16, But thou (Moses) shalt sleep with thy fathers: also Isa. xxvi. 19, Thy dead men shall rise, &c.: which last seemed to give explanation how the fathers, though asleep, were yet to inherit. Germara Sanhedrim, ap. Mede, Book iv. Ep. 43; and Vitringa on Isa. xxvi. 19, Note A. - The Sadducees, says Vitringa, argued for a figurative sense.
There are a few extracts from the Gemara Sanhedrim given by Heinrichs on Apoc. xx. 4, 5, to much the same purport.
 So Vitringa in his Apocalypse, p. 1159, and in his Commentary on Isaiah xxvi. 19: referring to the prophecies, not only of Ezek. xxxvii. and Hosea vi. 2, but even of Dan. xii. 2, as to be taken in the same sense. - So too Rosenmuller on Ezek. xxxvii; who cites these same passages from the other prophets. He also quotes Jeromes Comment on Ezek. xxxvii. to the same effect.
 I may especially rest on the prophecy in Dan. xii. 2, compared with xii. 13 of the same chapter. - Clarius, (an anti-premillennarian commentator in the Critical Sacri,) constrained by the clearness of the language, writes thus on Dan. xii. 2, 13, and notices the general concurrence both of Jewish and Christian expositors in so explaining it: Hie apertissimè locus est de resurrectione, etiam Judæis sapientioribus consentientibus; [So, for example, the middle-age Rabin Saadias Gaon, thus interpreting Dan. xii. 2: - This is the resurrection of the dead of Israel, whose lot is to eternal life: but those who do not awake are the destroyed of the Lord, who do down to the habitation beneath, that is Gehenna; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh. (Bickersteth on Prophecy, 303: 7th Ed.)] -- tametsi cùm Chiliastis videantur sentire. - Omnium Catholicorum et peritorum Hebræorum consensu in hoc ultimo versu resurrectio promittitur. And so too Calmet.
Even Grotius himself, one of the most bold of anti-premillennarians, after a primary exposition of Dan. xii. 2 as figuring Maccabean triumphs, and Dan. xii. 13, as if Thou shalt stand in thy lot meant Præfecturam quam habes retinebis, and at, or to, the end of the days, ad plenissimam senectutem, yet is forced to add, et stabis significare anasthsh, (quemodo vertit Theodotion,) et finis dierum finem cited by him, and by Wintle in loc. AlsoVitringa on Isa. xxvi. 19; and Venema, p. 498; all of whom give a Maccabean primary solution to Dan. xii. 2.
Mr. Brown too (p. 200) thus writes. Conceiving that the time more immediately in view in this passage (Dan. xii. 2) was that of the deliverance of Daniels people, and taking this to mean their future conversion, I applied the whole in my former edition primarily to that blessed period when (in bright anticipation of the times of the restitution of all things) judgment shall be given to the saints of the Most High. . .But, whether right in supposing any such primary reference in the words, or not, I never for a moment doubted that the only adequate fulfillment of the prediction will be at the literal resurrection of both classes of men (i.e. good and evil).
 Hence Lowth, on Isa. xxv. 8, allows that that prophecy of the swallowing up death in victory can only be fulfilled at the general resurrection.
 Luke ii. 32, 34. - The reader will see that in interpreting the nature of the rising again of Israel from the nature of the fall risen from, I have followed the principle laid down pp. 76, 77suprà
 It will be well to mark, in passing, the clear distinction here set before us of the epoch of Christs glorious enthronization in his kingdom, from that of his taking seat on the Fathers throne (so Apoc. iii. 21) after his ascension. There has been often a confusion of times and things on this matter. I shall have to recur to the point in my notice of the Messiahs kingdom under my 4th head of argument.
 Matt. xix. 28. - We may compare the parallel passage in Luke xxii. 28-30; Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations: and I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me: that ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Also Matt. viii. 11; Many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob (anakliqhsontai, set down to supper) in the kingdom of heaven: and Matt. xxvi. 29; I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, till I drink it now with you in my Fathers kingdom. - Of the regeneration mentioned in Matt. xix. 28 I shall speak under my next head.
 Luke xiv. 14, Compare Luke xvi 22; speaking of the expectants of this resurrection as gathered into Abrahams bosom.
 Luke xxi. 24, xiii. 35, Matt. xxiii, 38, 39.
 Luke xxi. 27, 36, Matt. xxiv. 3, 37, &c.
 Apoc. i. 7. Comp. Zech. xii. 10.
 Acts i. 3. 6, 7.
 Acts xxvi. 6, 7.
 Acts xxiii. 6, xxiv. 21.
 1 Cor. xv. 54; So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. 55; O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?
In the former of these verses St. Pauls reference is to Isa. xxv. 8; in this mountain he will destroy the vail that is spread over all nations; he will swallow up death in victory. In the latter he refers to Hosea xiii. 14; I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction.
I might perhaps add Christs own reference to Isaiah lxvi. 24, in Mark. ix. 44, &c. But it is there the dark accompaniments of the æra that he speaks of.
 So the venerable T. Scott on Hebr. xi. 12.
 That of God as his great reward might be on earth as well as heaven.
 See p. 82, Note 684 suprà.
 Else what the meaning of the new heaven and new earth in Isaiah, Peter and the Apocalypse? So too in 1 Thess. iv. 17 the raised saints are said to meet the Lord in the air: not in another planet; or in some imagined world above the stars.
 So Mr. Brown, pp. 179-189: - a disquisition written with his usual force and ability; but which has left a strong impression on my own mind of the inability alike of himself and the eminent expositors cited by him, (Calvin, Lowth, Scott,) to construe the passages fairly on their anti-premillennarian hypothesis.
It is to be remembered that the Jews restoration is generally admitted by them. - if the perpetuity of the Abrahamic covenant, as respects the natural seed, be admitted on the authority of the apostle (Rom. xi. 26-29), it will be difficult I think to avoid admitting their territorial restoration: the people and the land of Israel being so connected in numerous prophecies of the Old Testament, that whatever literality and perpetuity are ascribed to the one must, one would think, on all strict principles of interpretation, be attributed to the other also. So Brown, p. 434.
 So Mr. Scott in loc. cited by Mr. Brown.
 p. 87 suprà.
 Gen. xii. 3, xxii. 18; In thee (and in thy seed) shall all the families (and nations) of the earth be blessed. - Compare Rom. xi. 12, 15; If the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, how much more their fullness? If the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be but life from the dead?
 Apoc. xxi. 5; And he that sate upon the throne said, Behold I make all things new. With which, as before, compare the prophecy in Isa. lxv., lxvi.
 I cite what follows from Schleusner on the world IIaleggenesia. Metaphoricè omnis magna et insignis pristini alieujus rei statûs instauratio, et institutio: . speciatim illi rerum humanarum status quo tristia tempora alia ac lactiora excipiunt fata. Sic v. c. apud Græcos Scriptores paleggenesia tribuebatur terræ, veris tempore forman suam mutanti; et apud Stoicos mundi in statum meliorem restitutio paleggenesia dicebatur. He adds that the Syriac translation renders it in Matt. xix. 28, in sæculo novo.
 Compare Heb. ii. 5. - The Jews supposed angels to be appointed over this earth and its several kingdoms, as I have observed Note 295, p. 29 suprà.
 1 Metanohsate oun, kai epistreyate, eiv to exaleifqhnai omwn tav amartiav spwv an elqwsi kairoi anayuxewv apo proswpou tou Kuriou kai apostelh ton prokeceirismenon * umin Ihsoun Croswpou on sei ouranon men sexasqai acri dexmsqai acri cronwn apokatastasewv pantwn, wn elalhsen o qdon dia stomatov twn agiwn autou proqhtwn ap´ aiwnov.
*[The received text, followed by our English translation, reads here prokekhrugmenon, before preached. But all the best Editions read prokeceirismenon. ]
 dpwv an elqwsi kairoe anayuxewv. In proof that mine is the most natural rendering of the conjunction, let me refer to a parallel or two: - e.g. Luke ii. 35, opwv an apokaluyqwsin ek pollwn kardewn dialogismoi that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed; and Psalm li 4, (Sept.) dpwv an dekawqhv en logoiv son that thou mightest be justified in thy sayings: &c. My rendering is in fact almost universally allowed by expositors, - anti-premillennarians, as well as others: e.g. by Whitby, Vitringa, Lightfoot, Doddridge. So too the critic Rosenmuller: - 'Opwv an, cum in finem,ut: nam particula opwv cum conjunctivo juncta notat ut, ita ut, Matt. vi. 5, xxiii. 35, Acts xv. 17, Rom. iii. 4. And so, as Whitby observes, Irenæus and Tertullian expounded the phrase of old Our English versions rendering of it as a particle of time, When the times, &c., is much less simple and natural.
[Irenæus thus; Poenitentiam igitur agite, et convertimiui, uti deleantur peccata vestra, et veniant vobis tempora refrigerii. iii. 12. Tertullian thus: Resipiscite ad abolenda delicat vestra, ut tempora vobis superveniant refrigerii, &c. De Resur. 23.]
 Katastasiv means the actual state, condition, or constitution; consequently apokatastasiv must most naturally mean a new and different constitution of things, generally by restoration to what it was originally.
For Scripture examples I may refer to Matt. xii. 13: Apskatestaqh ugihv wv h allh His hand was restored whole as the other: Matt. xvii. 11; Elias apokatasthsei panta, shall restore all things: Acts i. 6; Ei . . . apokaqistaneiv basileian ty Israhl, Wilt thou restore the kingdom to Israel: Jer. xvi. 15; Apokatasthww autouv eiv thv ghn autwn &c. So the verb. The substantive itself occurs here alone in the New Testament. - I observe that the only three meanings which Schleusner gives to apokatastasiv in his Scripture Lexicon are; - 1. Rei in primum Iocum reductio, restitutio; - 2. Omnis restitutio prioris status; - 3. Reductio rerum in meliorem statum. This is the more observable, as he adds the expression of his own inclination to take the word here in Hesychius rarior sense of teleiwsiv ; but apparently because of the inadequacy of the authority, does not urge that meaning. Kuinoel, with similar inclination, is equally unable to discover a case in point: for he takes refuge in the Septuagint version of Job viii. 6, which is not to the point.
By classical authors the noun and verb are similarly used in the sense of restoration: - surgically of the setting or restoration of diseased or broken limbs; astronomically of the sun returning into his old sign in the Zodiac; politically of hostages or exiles returning to their country. (See Schleusner and Scapula.) - And so again the Jewish writers Josephus and Philo, as Kuinoel observes on this passage.
So too the early Fathers, as the exemplifications following show. - 1. Ignatius, ad Smyrn. § 11; Apokatestaqh autoiv to edeon swmateion said of the Church of Antioch being restored to the Church Catholic, of which it was a member. - 2. Irenæus, i. 10; Tote de kai thn apokatastasin twn dlwn efh (scil. the heretic Marcus) genesqai, otan ta panta katelqonta eiv to en gramma, mian kai thn authn ekfwnhsin hchsh no correction being here given to Marcus: and i. 14: Ton hlion en dekadua mhsi termatizonta thn kuklikhn autou apokatastasin. - 3. Clemens Alex. in his Quis Dives; Auton apokatesthse th ekklhsia restored the young man to the Church. - 4. Origen, Contra Cels. Lib. iv.; oti oud apokatastaqhsontai, said of the Jews being restored to their country. - 5. Theophanes, Anastasin esten h eiv to arcaion apokatastasiv
 Acri cronwn apokatastasewv pantwn wn elalhsen o qeov dia stomatov twn agewn profhtwn. - Mr. Faber indeed declares the references of wn to cronwn as its antecedent an impossible construction; Such a syntax, forced and unnatural in itself, though grammatically possible, is constructively impossible. We may properly say, Until the times concerning which God hath spoken; but we cannot properly say, Until the times which God hath spoken. (S. C. iii. 325.) But what can be his meaning in so writing? He cannot surely intend to say that the relative wn may not be explained either by understanding peri before it, or as placed in the genitive from the Attic attraction: seeing that it is on one or other of these principles that this relative in the genitive must be explained, even though construed with pantwn. The only possible sense which I can attach to his objection is, that out of two preceding antecedents, each alike agreeing otherwise with a relative, the one nearest must necessarily be the one connected with it. A rule notoriously far from universal.
Since however in his Eight Dissertations, recently published (i. 8) he cites Prof Gaisford, adjudging that pantwn must be the antecedent, not cronwn, I will fortify my assertion by an example or two. So then Jude 15, IIeri pantwn twn ergwn autwn wn hsebhsan where the antecedent of wn is ergwn, not autwn: also 2 Pet. ii. 15, following in the way tou Balaam tou Bosor ov misqon adikian hgaphsen in which passage the ov does not refer to the proximate noun in the genitive, Bosor, but to the preceding it, Balaam. This construction arises from considering the phrase made up of the first noun and connected genitive of the next, grammatically, somewhat as if one. - Compare such passages as Luke xxiv. 13, eiv kwmhn apecousan otadeouv exhkonta apo Ierousalhm, h onoma Emmasuv: v. 9, epi tu agra twn ecquwn h sunelabon or the following from Dion Cass. lxviii. 33; ev Selenounta thv Kelekiav elqwn, hn dn kai Traianoupolen kaloumen where the hn refers not to the immediate noun Kelekiav for its antecedent, but to Selenounta. Unquestionably the reference to the cronwn as antecedent is most legitimate. And so Dr. Routh, according to Mr. Cuninghame: also Rosenmüller, as cited by me Note 761 p. 93.
 Restricted, I mean, to those things distinctively that had been prophesied of as to be restored, and of which the restoration had not already been effected.
 Kairoi anayuxewv. The verb anayucw is used by the Septuagint in Judges xv. 19, 1 Sam. xvi. 23, and 2 Sam. xvi 14, of Samsons revival from extreme thirst, - Sauls from the evil spirit, on Davids playing the harp, - and Davids from the weariness and sadness of his retreat from Jerusalem, on Absaloms rebellion.
 Rosenmüllers view on all these four points, and the general purport, is similar to my own. Winzerus rectè monet pronomen wn non ad pantwn sed ad cronwn respicere: quod ex versu 24 intelligitur; ubi, post Mosem anteà memoratum, omnes etiam reliquos vates tav hmerav tantav annuntiasse declarat Petrus. Porre Winezerus observat ad Judeaos orationem habere Pettrum. Scilicet, tanquam praemium fidei in Christian, sperare eos jubet kairouv anayuxewv et cronouv apokatastasewv pantwn, quæ phrases inter se non differunt. Jam vero apokatastasiv de restitutione in pristinum statum in integrum, ut Græci, ita Judæi scriptores dicere consueverunt. Polyb. iv. 23. 1, Diod. Sic. xx. 34; Septuag. Gen. xli. 13, Job viii. 6, Jer. xxiii. 8. Coll. Matt. xii. 13, Marc. iii. 5, viii. 25, Luc. vi. 10, Act. i. 6. - So, he adds, the Jews expected Messiah to restore Paradise, making a renovationem mundi physici: and that St. Peter expected the same appears from 2 Pet. iii. 7, &c. He compares too Apoc. xxi. 1.
 I mean doubly, as being restricted alike in regard of the past and of the future.
 See his pp. 147-149.
 So Rosenmüller, as cited Note 761 p. 90; and again, kairai anayuxewv sunt tempora quietis; id est summæ felicitatis, in regno Messiæ expectandæ, quod Christus è eæle rediturus olim inaugurabit. So too Whitby ad loc. These times of refreshing were to come by the sending of that Jesus who was ascended into heaven, and was not to come thence till the day of judgment. . . I therefore incline to the opinion of the ancients, which refers this to the time of Christs second coming, to give his servants . . rest with him, as 2 Thess. i. 6-8. On the absence of the article before kairoi, we may compare the kairoi eqnwn in Luke xxi. 24.
 Matt. xvii. 11; where the same verb is used, apokatasthsei panta.
 Vitringa, on Isa. xxv. 3-5, supposes the expression times of refreshing, kairouv anayuxewv, to have arisen on figurative passages predicting the future blessedness, like those in Isa. xxv. 4, xlix. 10; Neither shall the heat nor the sun smite them: &c; the former in connection with the swallowing up of death in victory.
 The Greek of this important passage is as follows in Scholzs text.
Aogezouai gar oti ouk axia ta paqhmata tou nun kairou prov thn mellousan doxon apokalufqhnai eiv hmav. `H gar apokaradokia * thv ktisewv thn apokaluyen twn uiwn tou qeou apecdecetai. Tu gar mataiothti h ktisiv upetagh (aucekousa, alla dia ton upotaxanta), ep´ elpidi oti kai auth h ktisiv eleuqerwqhsetae apo thv douleiav thv fqorav eiv thn eleuqerian thv doxhv twn teknwn tou qeou. Oedamen gar oti pasa h ktisiv sustenazei kai sunwdenei acri tou nun ou monon de, alla kai autoi thn aparchn tou IIneumatov econtev, kai hmeiv autoi en eautoiv stenazomen, uioqesian apekdecomenoi, thn apolutrwsin tou swmatov hmwn
*Literally, a turning or stretching of the head in intent expectation.
St. Paul not infrequently conjoins this word swma in the singular with persons in the plural, though meaning their bodies, in the literal sense, plurally. So Rom. vi. 12, en ty qnhty umwn swmati and also 1 Cor. vi. 19, 20, 2 Cor. iv. 10. Compare Isa. xxvi. 19, My dead body they shall arise.
 Both Griesbach and Scholz mark the parenthesis.
 Irenæus says, v. 32, 36, Oportet ergo et ipsam conditioneim [i.e. the present state of things.] redintegratam ad pristinum sine prohibitione servire justis: et hoc Apostolus fecit manifestum in eâ quæ est ad Romanos; sic dicens, Nam expectatio creatureæ revelationem filiorum Dei expectat. And Tertullian, Contrà hermog. 11; that then will be an end to evil, cùm revelatio filiorum Dei redemerit conditionem à malo, utique vanitati subjectam - Our English translation renders it here creation, as well as creature. And Schleusner on the word Ktisiv gives, as one meaning, omnes res à Deo creatæ, omnis retum natura, universum; referring to this passage in exemplification, as also to Rom. i. 25, &c. Mr. Scott too, though an anti-premillennarian, so takes it.
 Compare Isa. xxvi. 19.
 Compare verse 20.
 Irenæus, v. 31, notes certain heretics, who expected the saints glorification to follow immediately after death, and before their resurrection; non suscipientes salutem carnis suæ, contemnentes autem repromissionom Dei, . . simul alque mortui fuerint dieunt se supergredi coelos et Demiurgum. And so Justin Martyr, Dial, cum Tryph. Oi kai legousi mh einai nekrwn anastasin, all´ ama ty apoqnhskein tav yucav autwn analambanesqai eiv ton auranon. - Patristie views, by the way, which ill agree with that of the Church of Rome, defining in its Florentino Council (Hard. ix. 422) that the souls of saints (properly purified saints) instantly go to heaven.
 So Mark xvi. 15, Preach the gospel to every creature, chfuzate to euaggelion pash th ctisei. Compare Col. i. 16, The firstborn of every creature, prwtotokwv pashv ktisewv and verse 23, to every creature, en pash [th] ctisei
 Hence, he says, the Messiah is called in Gen. xlix. 10, IIrosdokia twn eqnwn, the expectation of the Gentiles, and in Haggai ii. 7, the desire of all nations.
 Not only they, he says in verse 23, (that is the ktistv, or creature, generally,) but even ourselves, which have the first-fruits of the Spirit, do groan, &c.
 Thus Origen; They expect the times when those things shall be revealed which are prepared for them that are sons of God. Whitby; That which it (the ktiwiv) groans for, is its redemption from corruption. Macknight; Though the Gentiles in particular knew nothing of the revelation of the sons of God, the apostle calls their looking for a resurrection from the dead a looking for that revelation: because the sons of God are to be revealed by their being raised with incorruptible bodies: - and again, their earnest desire of a resurrection. - Scott is more faithful to Scripture in his comment: but neither suggests, nor obviates, the difficulty hence arising in the way of his anti-premillennial system.
 Said Huss: Let Antichrist rage as he will, yet shall Christ destroy him with the spirit of his mouth: and then shall the creature be delivered out of the servitude of corruption, &c.: so connecting the time of the fulfillment of this promise with that of Antichrists fall. Foxe iii. 505.
 Luke xx. 36.
 Verse 9, 6.
 Verses 21-24.
 And whom God justified, says St. Paul (Rom. viii. 30) of the predestinate, or election of grace, them he also glorified: meaning, I conceive, in his purpose. - So what God does in purpose is spoken of Jer. i. 5; Before I formed thee in the belly. . I sanctified thee: also 1 Sam. xv. 28; &c.
 Compare John xi. 52, Ephes. i. 10. - I think had this point of divine revelation been duly considered, there would not have been advocated of an earthly ecclesiastical unity, such as have been broached by Romanists and semi-Romanists; or even of any earthly association of none but true Christians, such as by some Protestants too; e.g. the Plymouth Brethren, and others.
 uper thv parousiav. I have in a former Note on this clause, Vol. iii. p. 91, given some references from Rosenmüller in evidence of the sense concerning attaching to uper; and mentioned Whitby, Macknight, Schleusner, &c., as all here giving that meaning to the word. The first-named, Whitby, is specially observable, on account of his being an eminent anti-premillennarian. He enumerates, we say, as examples of uper being used in this sense, Rom. ix. 27, Hsaiav se krazei uper tou isranl where our translation renders it concerning; and also 2 Cor. vii. 4, ix. 3, Phil. i.7: adding, Phavorinus saith it is used omoiwv ty pere. - Similar is the use of it by Arrian, in his Introduction to the History of Alexander the Great; Alloi men dh alla uper Alexandrou anegrayan aud estin uper utou pleinov having just before said, peri Alexandrou. - On the other hand I doubt if uper ever bears the adjarative sense by, which our translators here give the word.
 hmwn episunagwghv ep auton.
 h apostasia - (Diaglott Transl., the falling away.)
 tu epifaneia thv parousiav autou (Diaglott Transl. th epifaveia thv parousiav by the appearing of the presence of himself.)
 Its origin is thus stated: That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter, as from us: i.e. says Whitby, neither by an pretended revelation - nor by word spoken by us, and by others misunderstood, - nor by anything contained in our former epistle, as in iv. 15, v. 2, where Christs second coming is spoken of - Or rather, He however adds, in ii. 16; where wrath is said to have come on the Jews to the uttermost.
Thus this eminent opponent of the pre-millennial advent admits, as do also most other commentators, a reference of St. Pauls 1st Epistle to the Thessalonians in the clause, nor by letter as from us. - On the other hand Mr. Faber, also eminent as an anti-premillennarian, argues against this explication of it. For he judges that if this reference to St. Pauls former Epistle be admitted, - then, since the parouwia, or coming (Diaglott: (3952) arousi>a, coming or presence - parousiav) - of our LORD Jesus Christ, in 1 Thess. iv. 15 was indisputably his personal coming to judge the quick and dead, there must naturally be attached the same meaning to the parousia here noted in 2 Thess. ii. 1, and consequently to the parousia of Christ in verse 8. But, says he, the expression by letter as from us, shows that it was a forged Epistle that St. Paul referred to. And so Mr. Brown, p. 48.
Now it seems to me that the explanation generally given is the most natural one. Certainly the wv di hmwn does not necessarily imply a forged letter. But the point is not worth disputing. It is the fact of the parousia in 2 Thess. ii. 1, the introductory verse to the prophecy about the Man of Sin, being clearly Christs personal coming (Editor: Or Presence) that constitutes the grand difficulty against any different view of the parousia in verse 8.
 On the propriety of this version of ene(v?)hke see my Vol. iii. p. 92, Note 5.
 Viz. ii. 19, iii. 13, iv. 15, v. 23.
 2 Thess i. 7-10. It is here called Christs apokaluyiv.- The parallelism of the words apokaluyiv and parousia is illustrated by the use of the one in verse 3 and 8 of ch. ii., of the other in verse 9, to signify the same coming of the Man of Son.
 Whitby indeed offers a quite different primary explanation of this episunagwgh of the saints to Christ; in connection with his primary explanation of the parousia, as Christs coming to destroy Jerusalem. It may mean, he says, the speedy gathering of Jewish converts to Christian churches; who, till Jerusalems destruction, often worshipped separately in their synagogues!! - Were the Thessalonian converts then, we ask, or Paul himself, among these Jewish semi-separatists; so as to answer to the hmwn in the clause, our gathering to Him?
Mr. Brown, pp. 64, 460, admits the natural sense of the episunagwgh; and consequent determination of Christs parousia in the 1st verse as meaning his personal second advent. So too Clemens, p. 121. Mr. Faber strangely omits all notice of the expression; the British Quarterly Reviewer all allusion even to the prophecy.
 Considering, he says, the uniform use of the phrase parousia Cristou in the first Epistle, to signify Christs coming at the day of judgment, it may be thought more reasonable to refer this passage to the same (i.e. the second personal) advent.
 In support of his exposition Whitby refers to Christs prophecy in Matt. xxiv.
 Compare my sketches of the prophetic portraiture and the historical realization, Vol. iii. pp. 91, 172 &c. - Alike Vitringa (p. 780), Faber and Brown agree with me in the propriety of this historical application of the predicted Man of Sin: and so too Mr. Gipps. Also Whitby admits it as an alternative solution of the prophecy.
 Compare what St. Paul writes in the immediately preceding context, 2 Thess. i. 7-10, of Jesus Christs revelation from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ; when he shall come to be glorified in his saints, &c. How and when glorified in his saints? Surely when his saints are gathered to him, to admire and reflect his glory, at the first resurrection. And who the parties destroyed by fire, but Antichrist and his apostate adherents?
 See p. 85.
 oi dikaioi - a phrase distinctive, it is to be observed, as of a particular class.
 Compare Dan. xii. 2, 3; And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, &c.: and they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever: Daniel himself (verse 12) among them. And this at the end of the days: i.e. of the 1335 days. See p. 85 suprà
 1 Thess. iv. 15.
 So Phil. iii. 21; Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body; and 1 Cor. xv. 43; sown in dishonor, raised in glory.
 Mr. Brown seems to me mistaken in supporting the wheat and tares of the parable to signify the good and evil that there may be in the same person; as well as the godly as a class, and the ungodly. See Brown p. 325-334.
 So 2 Tim. iv. 1, Who shall judge the quick and dead at his appearing and kingdom.
 Luke xxii. 28-30.
 Matt. xi. 12.
 Rom. viii. 17; Apoc. i. 9; 2 Tim. ii. 12.
 2 Cor. iv. 17.
 Apoc. xxi. 7.
 Mr. Brown indeed (pp. 389-397) contends that the way of life will be stait even in the millennium; and the lust of the flesh and eye, and the pride of life, to be resisted then as now. And so too Mr. Conder; saying that the temptations to sloth, &c., during the millennium, will be sufficient to keep up the warfare between flesh and spirit, p. 498. But I cannot but repeat that this seems to me a very unscriptural depreciation of the millennary dispensation.
 Heb. iv. 9.
 This will appear in my last chapter.
 See ibid.
 Mr. Brown, p. 484, objects that Gods holy day is called the sabbath, not from its being a septenary of time, but from the rest enjoined and enjoyed on it; from j"Wn to rest. But was not the Jewish holy day of rest, or sabbath, so fixed to the seventh day as to convey the idea of a septenary almost necessarily to a Jewish mind? See on this point my fuller consideration of the subject of the worlds sabbatism, in my last Chapter.
 Mede and Newton, unlike the early Fathers, and without Scripture warrant, as I have endeavored to show, would confine the first resurrection to the martyrs.
 Mr. Faber and Mr. Brown are perhaps the most eminent living exceptions. The British Quarterly Reviewer also and Clemens are united with them in the view.
 See the Introduction to his work on the Parables.
 The Bishops opinion is as follows: Respecting the Millennium, or reign of the saints on earth for 1000 years after these events shall have taken place, there is room for a great variety of conjecture. Whether . . we are to expect that a resurrection and triumph of the saints shall precede the general and final resurrection, or whether we hold that it is not to be a reign of persons raised from the dead, but a renovated state of the Church, flourishing gloriously for 1000 years after the conversion of the Jews, and the flowing in of all nations to the Christian faith, - it is not necessary to determine. The former interpretation seems to offer the least violence to the language of Scripture, and is supported by great authority. I extract this from Bickersteth on Prophecy, p. 301.
 See pp. 23, 27, 58 - 61, 88, 89 suprà, &c.
 eita to telov.
 That the eita generally implies some interval of time will appear from the following examples: - Mark iv. 17, eita qleyewv genomenhv, afterward tribulation arising, &c.; ib. 28, first the blade, eita atacuv, then the ear; 1 Cor. xv. 5, He was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve; and 1 Tim. ii. 13, Adam was first formed, than Eve.
 2 Peter iii. 10.
 As also with the paliggenesia, or new creation, spoken of by Christ, Matt. xix. 28.
 I have already alluded, pp. 87, 88, to Mr. Browns attempted but vain solution of this difficulty, on the anti-premillennial hypothesis, by supposing Isaiahs to be a comprehensive sketch of the Christian Church in all its various stages. - The only other attempted anti-premillennarian solution is to the effect that Isaiahs is a figurative new heavens and earth, Peters real. So Mr. Gipps, p. 63, followed by Bishop Waldegrave, p. 587. And so, I believe, Mr. Faber; though he has strangely omitted, and apparently shunned, all allusion to Isaiah, when insisting on 2 Pet. iii. 10. But how could Peter refer to Isaiah prophecy as a promise of a real new heaven and earth, if it meant merely, a figurative one, and consequently something quite different?
 See my next Chapter, p. 217.
 So Isaiah li. 16, 17; And I have covered thee in the shadow of mine hand, that I may plant [Heb. stretch out] the heavens, and lay the foundations of the earth, and say unto Zion, Thou art my people. A passage thus followed; Awake, awake, stand up, O Jerusalem, which has drunk at the hand of the Lord the cup of his fury, &c.: so fixing the time as that of Judahs restoration.
 And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake; some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. And they that be wise shall shine, &c. Dan. xii. 2.
Thou hour cometh when all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; they that have done good to the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil to the resurrection of condemnation. John v. 28.
 So certainly say many of the most learned expositors, both Jewish and Christian. E.g. of the Jewish, the Rabbi Saadias Gaon, already cited Note 731, p. 86 suprà: who thus interprets Dan. xii. 2, by reference to Isaiah lxvi. 24; This is the resurrection of the dead in Israel, whose lot is to eternal life: but those who do not awake are the destroyed of the Lord, who go down to the habitation beneath, i.e. Gehenna: and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh. - So too Aben Ezra; as referred to by Tregelles.
So again, of Christian expositors, Venema, p. 501, on Dan. xii. 2: Prius (membrum) mortuos distribuit in eos qui evigilarent, et eos qui in statu mortis munerent: posterius cum resuscitatorum, tum reliquorum in pulvere terræ perseverantium, diversam conditionem; illorum gloriosam et beatam, horum contemptibilem et execrabilem, ob oculos ponit. Quo sensu voculæ hla et hla , illi et illi, non dividunt, ut putatur, resuscitatos, sed resuscitatos et residuce in pulvere . . . Priores hla illi sunt resuscitati hla illi sunt relicti in morte. licti in morte. At p. 503 he refers, like Saadias Gaon, to Isa.l lxvi. 24, in support of this interpretation. - He also, p. 502, notes the interpretation as one propounded by Coccius.
To the same effect is the explanation given by the American Hebrew Professor Bush, in his Valley of Vision, p. 50. The awaking is evidently predicted of the many, and not of the whole. Consequently the these, in the one case, must be understood of the class that awakes; the those, in the other, of that which remains asleep. There is no ground whatever for the idea that the latter awake to shame and contempt. It is simply because they do not awake, that his character pertains to them. The error in our translation has arisen from rendering the Hebrew pronoun incorrectly hla,, hla,w, some, and some, instead of these and those, referring respectively to subjects previously indicated. By the former method a distinction is constituted between those who are awakened; by the latter between those who are, and those who are not awakened. - He illustrates his argument by the three following examples; the full force of which, however, he says, none but the Hebraist can understand: - Josh viii. 22; So they were in the midst of Israel; these on this side, and those on that side: 2 Sam. ii. 13; And they sate down; these on this side of the pool, and those on the other side of the pool: 1 Kings xx. 20; And they pitched, these over against those, seven days.
So too Tregelles, on Dan. xii. p. 136: who states that the translation to this effect is given, as undoubtedly correct, in Gerard Kerkherders Prodromus Danielieus.
In Kittos Cyclopaedia, Art Pharisees, Josephus is cited saying to them; They believe that souls have an immortal vigor in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as men have lived virtuously or viciously in this life. The latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison, but the former shall have power to revive and live again. Again, they say the souls of good men only are removed into other bodies; but the souls of bad men are subjected to eternal punishment. p. 514. So again p. 515, 1st Col.
Compare, on the general subject of this Chapter, Macknights original and curious Note on 1 Thess. iv. 16.
 The hour is coming when the dead [i.e. spiritually dead] shall hear the voice of the Son of God. Here by the hour is meant the whole long period of the Christian dispensation, though beginning from Christs first advent and ministry.
 E.g. Luke xiv. 14; Thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the just: Luke xx. 36; They are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection: Acts xxiii. 6; Of the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question.
Again on 1 Cor. xv. 51, Whitby observes justly that throughout the chapter, as all expositors, ancient and modern, have remarked, the apostle by the resurrection, which is his subject, means simply the resurrection of the just. Neither in his chapter, (e.g. verse 52, In a moment the dead shall be raised incorruptible, &c.) nor in 1 Thess. iv. 16, (For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, and the dead in Christ shall rise first; then we which are alive, &c.) is a word said to suggest that there would be accomplished at the same time the resurrection of the wicked. And these two passages (especially 1 Cor. xv.) are the fullest prophecies existing on the subject of the resurrection.
 Let me just add that were the two resurrections mentioned in Daniel synchronous, the statement in Dan. xii. 13 about Daniel himself rising to his inheritance at the end of the 1335 days, would fix at that epoch the resurrection of both.
 Compare Heb. xii. 23 with Apoc. xiv. 4 and James i. 18.
 See p. 23, suprà
 In my next Chapter I shall have to recur briefly to the millennial æra and state.