Bookshelf/ Vol.I / Vol. IV. Part VI. Contents. Chapter I. 1. 2. 3. II. 1. 2. 3. III. 1. 2. 3. IV. 1. 2. V. 1. 2. Appendix I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. II. 1a. 1b. 2a. 2b. 2c. 3. 4. III 1. 2a. 2b.

PERIOD 4 From 1100 A.D.

To The Reformation

IN this fourth Period it is my purpose to sketch most prominently the partially contrasted and partially accordant views of the Apocalyptic prophecy, propounded very influentially by the Romanist Joachim Abbas and his followers, on the one hand, and the very early pioneers of the Reformation on the other. A briefer notice will suffice of Anselm of Havilburg before Joachim, and of Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas after him. - I have already just hinted the various new and important characteristics of the new opening ęra which combined to exercise a considerable influence on Apocalyptic interpretation, and to give a new and increased interest to the Apocalyptic Commentaries that now appeared: besides that, in the progress of time, new and important acts had occurred in the history of Christendom, with which to compare the details of prophecy. Germs of thought now arose that were to receive afterwards a fuller development; and prophetic views destined, ere very long, to help towards producing great and unexpected results.

1. And 1st, before proceeding to Joachim Abbas, let me briefly notice a short Treatise on the Apocalyptic Seals by Anslem, Bishop of Havilburg in the Magdeburgensian Diocese: [1] a Treatise composed A.D. 1145, as appears on the face of the document; and on the following occasion. It seems that Anselm (who had been previously Secretary to the Emperor Lotharius the Second) having been sent on an embassy to the Greek Emperor Manuel at Constantinople, was challenged by some Greek bishops there, publicly to discuss the points of difference between the Latin and the Greek Churches; with which request he complied: and that having successfully defended, as was thought, the Latin cause, he was desired by Pope Eugenius to write an abstract of the discussion; which he did, in the form of dialogue. By way of introduction to this discussion, and with a view to answer difficulties on religion, which might arise in some minds, from the circumstance of so many different forms of religion existing in different countries and different ages, he prefixed to the Dialogues a preliminary book, showing that there had been from the first one body of the Church, governed by one Spirit; that in the Old Testament times, from Abel even to Christ, the Church had ever held the rite of sacrifice, though with ceremonies often varied; and been under the influence of faith, though with imperfect knowledge of the articles of Christian faith: also, with reference to New Testament times, that various different successive states of the Church had been expressly foreshown, indeed seven different states from Christ to the consummation; the prefiguration of them having been given in the Apocalyptic Seals. In this curious manner it is that Anselm’s views on this prophecy were given to the world. It may perhaps be called the earliest Church-Scheme, properly speaking, of the Apocalyptic Seals; and is, in brief, as follows.

1. The white horse typifies the earliest state of the Church, white in the luster of miraculous gifts: [2] the rider Christ, with the bow of evangelic doctrine, humbling the proud, and conquering opposers; so that the Church (Acts v. 14, “And believers were the more added to the Lord, multitudes both of men and women.).” was then daily increased.

2. The red horse is the next state of the Church, red with the blood of martyrdom; from Stephen the proto-martyr to the martyrs under Diocletian.

3. The black horse depicts the Church’s third state, blackened after Constantine’s time with heresies, such as of Arius, Sabellius, Nestorius, Eutyches, Donatus, Photinus, Manes; men pretending to hold the balance of justice in their discussions, but falsely weighing words and arguments: [3] while on the other hand, Church Councils laid down what are rightly called Canons, (so Anselm seems some way to have understood the voice from among the Cherubim in the Apocalyptic vision,) by which the faith was defined.

4. The pale horse signified the Church’s fourth state, colored with the hue of hypocrisy too generally prevalent afterwards; “as pale is neither white nor black, but either falsely.” And so, adds Anselm, has the Church suffered from these, that the rider may well be called Death, Death the slayer of souls. - This state he makes to have commenced from the beginning of the fifth century, and to have continued even to his own time. Nor will it terminate, he asserts, till the time when the tares shall be separated from the wheat in judgment, and the saints follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth.

5. Souls under the altar. Here is the Church’s fifth state. Then the souls of the saints which will have shed their blood for Christ, considering the infinite miseries of the Church in its three previous states, moved with compassion will cry out, “How long, O Lord, dost thou not avenge our blood?”

6 The sixth state of the Church is when there shall arise the most vehement persecution in the times of Antichrist, [4] answering to the great earthquake of the sixth seal. Then Christ, the Sun of righteousness, shall be hidden; Christian professors fall from the Church into earthly-mindedness; and the heaven, or Church itself, pass away, together with its sacraments, altogether from the public view.

7 The seventh state is that of the saints’ rest; a rest in the beatific vision: as it is said, “When he had opened the seventh seal there was silence in heaven for about the space of half an hour.

So Anselm of the seven Apocalyptic Seals: a scheme chiefly exhibiting views of the Church’s successive trials and evils. - I may observe, further, that in one or two passing notices of the vision of the Dragon and travailing Woman, Apoc. xii., he makes what is said of the Dragon’s persecution of the Woman, or Church, after she had brought forth Christ her male child, to be chronologically parallel with the times of the red horse of the second Seal; also the Dragon’s going forth to persecute the rest of the Woman’s seed, (Apoc. xii. 17, “And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.”) to have been fulfilled in the heresies introduced after Constantine’s overthrow of Paganism, [5] by heretics that bore on their hearts the mark of the Beast.

2. I now pass on to Joachim Abbas; a person of greater repute and greater influence, as an expounded of prophecy, than any other whatever in the middle age. He was a Calabrian by birth, and in early life had made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem: a city at that time still held by the successors of the Crusaders; though threatened by Mussulman enemies surrounding it. The lively recollection of what he then saw had probably not a little influence on Joachim’s interest in and views of prophecy. Indeed it was there and then, in the Holy Church and Sepulcher, that the idea was first impressed on his mind of having a call to the illustration of prophetic Scripture. [6] About the year 1180 he had been elected Abbot of the monastery of Curacio in Calabria, near Cosenza: but, having already at that time become famous for his gift in Scriptural research and explication, he received express permission from Pope Lucius III, in the year 1182, to retire a while from the Abbacy and its active occupations, in order to give himself more entirely to these studies. In 1183, at the Convent of Casemaire, Luke, then a monk of the monastery, and afterwards Archbishop of Cosenza, tells us that he was assigned as secretary to Joachim: [7] and that night and day both himself and two other monks were employed by Joachim, as his assistants and scribes in two works on which he was then busy; one of the Concord of the Old and New Testament, the other on the Apocalypse. [8] It was for a year and a half, according to this informant, that Joachim thus occupied himself at the convent, “dictating and correcting.” At what time he finally finished his Apocalyptic comment seems uncertain. In A.D. 1190, when our king Richard was at Messina, on his way to the Holy Land, he was full of the subject. We have in Roger de Hovenden an interesting account of the king’s sending for him, and hearing him lecture on it, induced by his high reputation for prophetic lore; [9] together with a sketch of certain views as to the future which he then propounded from the Apocalypse: views partially contradicted however by the event soon after; and which in the commentary, as finally corrected by him, appear, as we shall see afterwards, considerably modified. In the copy of the commentary handed down to us, [10] I observe a notice of something that he states himself to have heard in the year 1195. [11] Hence I conceive that he corrected and improved the Work till near the time of his death; which happened, according to Fleury, in the year 1202. - I now proceed to give a sketch of his exposition.

A brief Prologue, and then an Introduction Book, are prefixed to the Exposition; which Exposition is itself divided into six PARTS. - In the Prologue he takes care prominently to state, that he had not entered on the work presumptuously, and merely from his own judgment; but by the authority, and at the command, of the Roman See; a brief Monitory of Pope Clement on which point, and one which alludes to the previous mandates of the two Popes preceding, is inserted. [12] And, in the same spirit of deference to the Roman See, he leaves also prefixed a solemn charge to the Priors and Brethren of his Abbey, to have his writings immediately and formally submitted to its judgment; in case of his death occurring before this was done. [13]

From the Introductory Book, (one of several chapters, preceding the main Commentary,) [14] it may suffice to note what he says of the Three Ages, the Apocalyptic seven-sealed Book, and the Concord of the Two Testaments.

1. Noticing the old Jewish threefold division of time, before the law, under the law, and under the Messiah or gospel, he observes that the last period of these three may be itself divided into three; viz. that of the gospel letter, gospel spirit, and vision of God; so making up five in all; [15] and that, omitting the first and last of the five, he would mean by the three states of the world, [16] when spoken of in his Treatise, the three intermediate ęras; viz. 1 from Abraham to John the Baptist and Christ; 2 from Christ to the time of the fullness of the Gentiles; 3. from that to the consummation.

2. He states that certain mysteries of the Old Testament history were depicted by the seven Seals of the Apocalypse seven-sealed Book: and that these mysteries were opened by Christ after his resurrection. [17]

3. He illustrates the concord of the two Testaments; and correspondence of certain events affecting the Old Testament Church, with certain that affected the New Testament Church, the latter being a kind of fuller expansion and accomplishment of the types of the former: and this in the seven ęras following, signified under the seven Seals. [18] We have here the key to Joachim’s Apocalyptic views.

                OLD TESTAMENT                                                                                                NEW TESTAMENT

SEAL                                                                                                       SEAL

1. From Abraham or Jacob, to Moses and                                       ½         1. From Christ to death of John the Evangelist

        Joshua; in which ęra occurred Israel’s                                     ½          - Conflict of the Church with the

        war with the Egyptians                                                             ½                Jews, under New Testament Moses.

2. Joshua to David. - Wars with the Canannites                              ½          2. Death of St. John to Constantine.- Persecutions

                                                                                                        ½                of Pagan Rome.

3. David to Elias and Elisha. - Schism of Israel                               ½          3. Constantine to Justinian. - Persian oppression

        and Judah, and civil wars.                                                          ½                of the Church . Schism of the Greek Church

                                                                                                        ½                from the Latin.

4. Elisha to Isaiah and Hezekiah. - Wars first                                  ½          4. Justinian to Charlemagne. Persian persecutions.

        with Syrians, then with Assyrians, resulting                              ½                Saracens overrun and desolate the Greek Church

        in Israel’s ten tribes’ destruction.                                             ½                and nation.

5. Hezekiah to Judah’s captivity by the Babylonians;                       ½          5. Charlemagne to the time now present. - The Greek

        after previous partial suffering from the                                   ½                Church now separated from the Roman. German

        Egyptians under Pharaoh Necho. Meanwhile                            ½                Emperors from Henry the 1st (men worse than

        there had been settled in the Samaritan                                    ½                heathens) endeavored to destroy the liberties of

        countries a mixed people; half heathen,                                   ½                of the Church. The Latin or Roman Empire

        half not.                                                                                   ½                answers to Babylon. [19]

6. Jews’ return to Malachi’s death. -                                                ½          6. Times just about beginning, in which the Roman

        Babylon overthrown by the Persians. Jews                                ½                Babylon (or Babylon of the Roman empire) will

        suffer from Assyrians under Holofernes, and                            ½                be struck to death.

        Syro-Macedonians under Antiochus. [20]                                       ½

7. Malachi to John the Baptist and Christ. World’s first state ends   ½          7. End of the second state in the world’s conversion and sabbath. [21]

“Apertio sexti sigilli,” he concludes, “nuper initiata, in paucis anis vel diebus consummationem accipiet. Exinde erit sabbatum, sicut in diebus Johannis: [22] et in eo status iste secundus consummationem accipiet. Ut autem in tempore sexti signaculi percussa est vetus Babylon, ita et nunc percutietur nova. Et sicut tunc Assyrii ét Macedones deterruerunt Judęos, ita et nunc Saraceni, et qui post eos venturi sunt pseudo-prophetę, facient mala multa in terrā, et talem tribulationem qualis non fuit ab initio. Consummatis autem pressuris istis adveniet tempus beatum:” - a time when “the knowledge of the Lord shall cover the earth as the waters cover the sea.,” [23]

Other chapters are on “the Dragon and Antichrist;” “De duplici intelligentiā distinctionis;” “Pulchrum mysterium;” “On the difference of sabbaths;” “On the perfection of the numbers five and seven,” &c., not now needful to enter on. Let me only in passing call attention to the heading of one; “De vitā activā designatā in Petro, et de contemplativā in Joanne.” [24] On various occasions this view of Peter as type of the priestly order, John of the monastic, is put forward by Joachim.

In proceeding I omit noticing the Part i. of Joachim’s Commentary, [25] relative to the Epistles to the seven Churches, as not to my point: and pass on to its Part ii., [26]   Leaf 114, where it enters on the subject of the Seals: observing, as we pass on, that he explains the four Cherubim around the throne to signify the four Ecclesiastical orders of pastors, deacons, doctors, and the contemplatives: [27] or, with a certain reference to chronological succession, first, the apostles; second, the martyrs and confessors; third, the doctors of the 4th and 5th centuries; fourth, the virgins or monks. [28]

The 1st Seal then having been opened by Christ, its white horse was the primitive Church: the rider Christ, as man, with his crown of righteousness, in person conquering alike the world, death, and Satan; and to the disciples triumphantly assigning the kingdom, the Jewish perfidy being overcome. (Just as Israel emerged from, and conquered, the Egyptians.) It was the first Cherub, or Apostolic Order, which, as with a voice of thunder, here invited the world to contemplate.

In the 2nd Seal, the red horse symbolizes the Roman Pagan priests and armies: the rider the Devil, that great homicide, or the Roman persecuting Emperors actuated by him. So were wars kindled, and peace disturbed. And especially what bloodshed of the saints in the Roman persecutions; till the Church’s victory over Paganism under Constantine and Pope Sylvester! (So, in Jewish history, the conquest of the Canaanites under the Judges, to Samuel and David.) The Order of Martyrs by their sufferings invited attention to this Seal.

3rd Seal. The black horse was the Arian Clergy, masters of error and darkness: the balance symbolizing the “disputatio literę,” [29] and cunning dialectics of the Arians. “Sed tu tene tuum pondus: tu serva numerum quem audisti!” viz. “a choenix of wheat for a denarius.” This choenix, or two pounds, (bilibres) of wheat (the food of man), Joachim explains as having reference to the two Testaments, of which the perfect doctrine well corresponds with the Denarius, as the perfect number: while the three choenixes or bilibres, i.e. the six pounds of barley (more properly the food of cattle), might refer to the “sex tempora laboriosa,” from Abraham to John the Baptist, “quibus indicta sunt omnia servilia ad sanum atque perfectum intellectum perducere!” Or perhaps the two pounds’ weight of wheat, announced from among the four living creatures, might allude to the cry of the two Seraphim, Holy, Holy, Holy! “Which cry had the wretched Arius heard, he would never have impeached the Deity of the Son or Holy Ghost.” [30] - The Order of the Catholic Doctors here proclaimed the truth.

4th Seal. - The pale horse signified the Saracens, those destroyers of much of the Greek Church and Empire; the rider Mahomet. For, “Quis tąm rectč More appellari potuit quąm ille perditus Maometh, qui tot millium hominum factus est causa mortis!” (Joachim identifies this with the little horn of Daniel’s fourth Beast; and supposes the subject to be continued to the 5th and 6th Seals, as well as referred to again more fully afterwards.) By “Hades following” was perhaps meant Meses Mutus; a Mahommedan persecutor of Christians, then ruling in Mauritania. [31] - It was the Order of Monks and Virgins that here answered to the fourth Cherub, crying, Come and see! - (Israel’s fourth tribulation, from the Syrians and Assyrians, is the Jewish, parallel referred to by Joachim.)

5th Seal. - By the altar of God, which is associated with this Seal, as the four Cherubs were with the Seals preceding, is meant the Romish Church, including both clergy and monks. As the four primary persecutions originated in Judęa, Rome, Greece, and Arabia, so this fifth in Mauritania and Spain; where many Christians of the Romish communion have been killed even until now. For, whenever the Saracen powers might seem to have fallen, they have always remarkably been revived, like the Beast’s head in Apoc. xiii.: much as was also revived the Assyrian power, again persecuting Israel, under Holofernes. [32] To which are to be added the injuries suffered by the Romish Church from the Latin Emperors. [33] “And they cried, How long, O Lord, dost not thou avenge, &c.” A different cry this from that of the proto-martyr Stephen! For of the just, some, like him, are more patient. - The white robes given signify how the martyrs pass from mourning to joy. - The words, “till their brethren be judged, that are to be slain even as they,” show that after the fifth Seal, “in cujus extremitate nos sumus,” [34] there remains still to be accomplished a final martyr-conflict and suffering.

6th Seal. - Earthquake, &c. Here is the beginning of the Apocalyptic Babylon’s day of judgment. “Perpende verba hęc misera Babylon; ecce enim appropinquat desolatio tua; ą sęculis predicta est. . . Necesse est enim ut in sexto recipias quod in quinto tempore contulisti.” But who or what is Babylon? Whoever by moral or physical influence opposes the Church of Peter. [35] Specially he includes here all false Christians or false members of the Roman Church in the Germanic Roman Empire; those princes inclusive who are to tear the Harlot, as stated in Apoc. xvii., and who are afterwards openly to fight with the Lamb: “Ipsi enim reges qui percussuri sint Fornicariam, ut emudent superficiem terrę, pugnaturi sunt cum Agno; et Agnus vincet illos.” [36] This day of judgment, he says, is to be understood in a larger sense, as well as stricter: the large for a certain indefinite period of judgment; as Paul, “Us on whom the ends of the world are come:” [37] a stricter, when the just shall rise to eternal life, the wicked to eternal punishment. - Here the earthquake is the earthquake of terror in the hearts of men: the sun and moon darkened, the spiritual eclipse of Christian doctrine, as set forth both by the monastic and the clerical orders: (of which, as even now almost commencing, fearful symptoms appear:) the heaven passing away, the passing away of the light-dispensing Church, so as that there be no more public preaching: (though some will still exhort in secret:) just as it is said in Apoc. xiii., “that none might buy or sell,” i.e. none offer (Professedly) the priceless gospel, but they that had the Beast’s mark. The islands and mountains fleeing away means the dissolution of episcopal churches and monasteries. The kings of the earth noted are the same that in Apoc. xix. are seen to gather against the Lamb; being God’s instruments, bad though they be, for purging the Lord’s threshing-floor of its chaff in the mystic Babylon. At which time many thousands will fall in martyrdom, to complete the martyr-number, as intimated in the fifth Seal. [38] - Then, Babylon having thus been judged, the Mahommedan nations (jointed) by false prophets apostatized from Christianity) will prophecy triumph to their law. But the Lamb shall conquer them.

Sealing Vision. - The four angels here are the same evil angels as those that (Ps. lxxvii.) once afflicted Egypt; and which use infidel nations that surround the Church as their agents: judicially permitted to withhold the life-giving influences of the winds; i.e. of the preaching of spiritual doctrine. (Or, if good angels, they may signify the four preaching orders, judicially withholding the word, under God’s direction; like as in Amos viii., and in the rain-withholding of the two witnesses.) The sealing angel is either Christ, risen from the dead, and having the name of the living God as the Divine Author of life: or perhaps the Roman Pontiff, charged like Zerubbabel of old to rebuild Jerusalem and the temple; Christ acting and triumphing in him “maximč cłm ipse solus principaliter teneat locum ejus.” [39] Whichever it be, he will arise as with the influence of the morning sun; at which the wild beasts, or adverse powers of darkness, will get them away to their dens (Ps. civ.), while he preaches with certain evidence the near resurrection of the dead: - that so, in this breathing-time between the two last tribulations, the faithful ones may be prepared with the armor of light, to resist in the evil day; to complete the mystic number of the elect 144,000, including both converted Jews and Gentiles (these being the same that are again mentioned in Apoc. xiv., and figured too in the 144 cubits of the Holy City,) and to fight the remainder of the battle, under the Lamb and his followers, with the Beast and kings of the earth. - The interval will be like the six years after the return from Babylon, in which the Temple’s rebuilding was completed. - Besides which 144,000, an innumerable number will be killed for Christ’s name, whose blessedness is declared in the palm-bearing vision; a blessedness partly in this world, where they begin the ascription of praise to God the Savior, and lasting afterwards through eternity: the angels (here meaning all the elect ones [40] ) crying Amen! Their serving him alike day and night in his temple, means serving him in times alike of joy and sorrow, in his Church, [41] for no temple appeared in the New Jerusalem; nor is servitude known in heaven. And so at length they reach heaven afterwards; when they drink of the fountain of life in his presence, where there are no tears.

7th Seal. As in Luke xxiii. it is said that “the women rested (siluerunt) on the Sabbath according to commandment,” so the half-hours silence of this seal may mean the sabbath-keeping, especially in a contemplative life. So in Ps. lxxxiv., “I will be silent to hear what the Lord God may say concerning me.” - In the corresponding ęra under the Old Testament, viz. after Ezra and Malachi, there was a cessation too from writing Scripture. So under the coming 7th Seal the time of expounding Scripture will be ended: the mysteries of the Old Testament being solved “per concordiam;” or manifest concord, I suppose, with those of the New Testament dispensation. (Did Joachim believe the prophetic Expositor’s office closed in himself?) - He adds, “The half-hour specified I deem to be the seventh and last half time of the 3 1/2 prophetic times, whether literally or mystically understood.” [42]

PART III. - With the Trumpets Joachim makes the chronology of the Visions to retrogress to the commencement of the Gospel dispensation: the seven Trumpet-Angels being New Testament preachers, appointed to raise their voice like a trumpet; just as Israel’s trumpet-priests round Jericho. With what those priests did in one week we may compare what has been done in the sixth age of the world: the world being fated to fall, together with Antichrist, on the completion of seven times from Christ’s birth; which seven times are all included under the world’s sixth age. [43]

The incense-Angel is explained as Christ, after his death and ascension, offering (together with the saints) the prayers of his people; [44] then sending down fire of the Holy Spirit on the apostles, and all others of spiritual understanding. Whereupon, like the thunderings and voices in vision, the voice of the Gospel sounded forth to the world; and a movement of men’s hearts and souls resulted, like to the earthquake. - This stated, Joachim next proceeds to expound the Trumpets.

Trumpet 1. - The Trumpet-Angel here is the Apostolic band, and chiefly St. Paul, preaching against Judaism the spirituality of the law; which the hail, mixed with fire and blood, cast on the earth, signifies the spirit of hardness of heart, mixed with fiery and bloody zeal, infused into the Jews: [45] the result being that a third of professedly believing Jews (the vain carnal-minded of them) apostatized from the faith to Judaism or heresy.

Trumpet 2. - This Trumpet-Angel signifies the Martyrs and Doctors of the post-apostolic age, preaching against the Nicolaitan heresy: Nicolaus with the zeal of his hot malice, who taught doctrines like those of Balak, being like a burning mountain cast into the sea of Gentilism; through which a third were caused to die from the faith.

Trumpet 3. - The third Trumpet-Angel symbolizes the Christian Doctors from the time of Constantine. The falling meteor was Arias: whose pestiferous error fell on bishops and priests, from whom should flow forth streams of wisdom; and embittered the waters, Scripture being now perverted by them. - Which Arian error, and Arian persecution too, continued till the time of the Saracens. [46]

Trumpet 4. - The Trumpet-Angel in this case typifies the Holy Monks and Virgins: who, like celestial luminaries, walking in the high pathway of contemplation, gave light to the world; but were in a large measure quenched by the outburst of the licentious Mahometan heresy, and of the Saracens.

The Woe-denouncing Angel that next followed, I think, says Joachim, to have signified Pope Gregory I: who wrote so much, and so earnestly, on the world’s end as near at hand, and the coming trials of the consummation. [47] If his predictions were not fulfilled, the failure arose, not from Gregory’s having been deceived, but from God’s mercy in withholding judgment, and prolonging the time of probation.

Trumpet 5. - “And who the scorpion-locust of this Trumpet but the heretics commonly called Pathareni, [48] the modern Manichees?” So Joachim expounds the symbol. It is notable as about the earliest application of such Apocalyptic emblems by Romish writers to anti-Romish schematics.

And here, let me observe, Joachim gives the current account of these heretics (the commingled Waldenses and Cathari apparently) just, no doubt, as it had reached him: nor can I pass on without briefly sketching it, as being a testimony hitherto unnoticed. He tells then that they believed all bodies and flesh to have been created by the Devil, [49] and Christ not to have come in the flesh; condemned lawful marriages, and enjoined abstinence from eating flesh: [50] though plausibly professing all the while to be the holders and teachers of the apostolic faith: [51] that they lived a simple life, supported by their own labor; and made great pretence to purity and righteousness; [52] yet, when meeting at night in their synagogues, did there the deeds of darkness: [53] that their origin was of ancient date, beyond known record: [54] that they were divided into believers and perfect men; the latter alone bound to observe their stricter rules of life: [55] that they were bent on proselyting; [56] using, or rather abusing Scripture (like the lamblike-horned false Prophet) for the purpose; [57] affirming that the poor man, on joining them, became instantly rich; [58] urging from their own simpler and more primitively Christian life, in contrast with that of the Catholic clergy: [59] that in doing this they made light of the risk incurred; even as if they despised the present life, and counted on eternal life, if punished with death in consequence; [60] in which case, and when burnt as heretics by the Catholic authorities, they were esteemed by their brethren as men crowned with martyrdom. [61] - Is not all this very corroborative of the view given by me of these so-called heretics, and other cognate sects, in my second Volume?

As to the Apocalyptic details, they are thus applied to the Pathareni. The original opener of the abyss God only knew. That it was some of the clergy however was evident, [62] taught by the father of lies to probe the depths of worldly science; the scorpion-locusts being the Pathareni heretics, emerged out of the smoke of the heresy: - again the trees and grass, which the locusts are bid not to hurt, are the perfect and the simple-minded Catholics; the latter of whom, when interrogated by the heretics, turn a deaf ear, saying it is not for them, but the clergy, to dispute on questions of faith. [63] On the other hand the men converted by the Pathareni into “believers” soon feel the venom of the sting of their perverters; the very “paleness of their face” showing them to be so wretched that they would rather die than live: [64] - conscience meanwhile accusing them of having joined the heretics only from regard to temporal benefit: it being a custom of these Pathareni to make collections at their meetings; [65] and to hold out to poor Catholics, with whom they express sympathy, that by joining them they may both temporarily profit, and also, keeping the apostolic faith, gain eternal life. [66] - The breastplates indicate the hard-heartedness of the Perfecti: the rushing locust-wings their noisy arguings from Scripture: the five months of their commission, a period probably of so many generations: five months being equivalent to five times thirty days, and sometimes a day used for a year. [67] For it is long since the sect first began; indeed no one knew when. [68] - Finally, the locust-king Abaddon might be the pseudo-Apostolic man whom these heretics all profess to obey. [69]

On the whole, adds Joachim, considering what St. John says, that “whosoever denies Jesus to have come in the flesh is an Antichrist,” and also what St. Paul prophesies of apostates in the last days, “forbidding to marry, and that there should be abstinence from meats,” we may probably conclude that Antichrist is even now in the world, though the hour of his revelation has not yet come: the time for this being under the sixth Trumpet, after the desolation of the Roman Empire, [70] which still offers him resistance. But the fifth Trumpet-woe is indeed but a preparation for the sixth: so that Antichrist must anticipate the latter in his rise , so as under the fifth, either by himself of by his messengers, to have begun to spread his poison. [71]

Trumpet 6. - The voice from the four horns of the altar means the concurrent voice of the four evangelists, declaring the evils fated to occur at this epoch of the consummation: - the four angels bound, the same four evil angels as in Apoc. vii., waiting only the summons to do evil, on the summons of their father the Devil, at any time, and for any time, whether “the hour, day, month, or year:” [72] the Trumpet-Angel, Christian preachers; whose it is to loose the evil angels, either by ceasing to pray for Christendom, or simply (so as Isaiah in what is said of his making the heart of the Jews hard) in the sense of announcing their being loosed: [73] whereupon the four angels are to lead on deceived myriads, as believers in the Antichrist, or rather Antichrist, of prophecy. Among these, some of the Saracens will be eminent; the same that constituted the fourth Trumpet-plague; now revived, after a temporary decline, like the Beast from the earth: many Jews too joining, and also the Pathareni. “Indeed,” adds Joachim, “a sensible and God-fearing man, escaped from captivity, in Alexandria, told me last year, i.e. A.D. 1195, at Messina, how he had been assured by a certain eminent Saracen, that the Pathareni had sent envoys thither to conclude an alliance with the Saracens, which had in effect been concluded.” [74] Thus was a foundation laid for the mystery of iniquity. By these other savage nations are to be led on; as the Turks from the East, the Moors and Berbers [75] from the South, and from the North savage nations north of Germany: all which until the sixth Trumpet-blast, continue bound in, or by, the great river Euphrates, or Roman empire; an empire intended to be a bulwark to the Church. But when the sixth Vial has been poured out, and the Euphratean waters dried up, then these powers are to fall on Rome, the proud city, the mystic Babylon. (Would that it may take warning!) A prelude to which has been seen recently in the case of its Emperor Frederic: who (in 1189) crossed the sea with multitudes; but returned (in 1191) with a mere remnant, nothing done. [76] - The lion-like heads of the symbol, adds Joachim, indicate open force; the serpent-tails, secret poison; whereby (the numbers being irresistible) the enemy will both dominate over the body, and by torments seek to quench faith in the soul. Joachim further intimates the identity of these powers, especially the Saracen, with the ten toes of Daniel’s image; as also with the ten horns of the Beast; or ten kings in Apoc. xvii., that are to tear the desolate the harlot city Rome. [77] - And he observes that he is not to be thought inconsistent or absurd in thus a second time supposing the Saracen power to be an actor on the scene; in the 6th, as well as in the 4th Trumpet: because the Beast’s last head but one, after seeming to be dead, revived again as its last head, to do worse evils than before.

In (Apoc. ix. 20, “And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk:”) - a notice having been added of men’s general non-repentance after the plagues above-mentioned, and of their worshipping dęmons, and idols, &c., [78] there is given in Apoc. x. a vision of an angel of light, sent to improve the respite before the last and greatest tribulation: the elect being thus helped to salvation, and the condemnation of the impenitent increased.

But who meant by this Angel? Doubtless some eminent preacher, in the spirit and power of Enoch, if not Enoch himself, [79] descending from heaven to earth, i.e. from the contemplative to the active life: the iris (rainbow) about his head indicating his spiritual intelligence; his face like the sun, the communication of the light of spiritual intelligence; his feet as pillars of fire, the firmness of his tread (through recognition of their concord [80] ) in either Testament, Old or New, the land or deeper sea; as also his shedding forth luster on either: his lion-like voice being a cry directed against the infidels remaining; and the seven thunders the accordant answering voices of doctors inspired by the seven spirits of God: voices sealed however from the carnal; as says the apostle, “The natural man understandeth not the things of the Spirit of God,” and Christ, “Cast not your pearls before swine:” though the book of Scripture will be still opened to all. The Angel’s oath indicates that it will be one part of the answering preacher’s mission to proclaim the last time and day of judgment must begin, as near at hand: though till the event it must remain uncertain, as Augustine says, [81] how long may be the last day spoken of in Scripture, or in what order the details of judgment; save only that the judgment must begin , and that speedily, at the house of God; and that the subsequent “time being no more,” means the ending of the troublesome times of the world in the final sabbath: [82] which warning cry, however, the children of this world will not hear; but say, “Where is the promise of his coming (parousia)?” [83]

In the charge “Go take the Book and eat it,” John is the representative of the monastic order; [84] as Peter elsewhere of the clerical. And, the latter being almost effete and worn out, [85] it will be the special office of the former, when enlightened by the spiritual expositions of the messengers to truth, to preach the Gospel of the coming kingdom. - This will be the third preaching course opposed by the enemy: the other two being that by Moses, and that by Christ and his apostles. [86]

Apoc. xi. 1; “And there was given me a reed like a rod: and the Angel said, Rise and measure the temple, &c.” The holy city here mentioned means (not Jerusalem and the Jewish synagogues, nor yet the Greek Church and empire, which are rather Samaria, but) the holy Roman Church and empire, ‘tota Latinitas:” [87] the temple symbolizing the ecclesiastical order, generally; the altar, specially the consistory of cardinals. [88] To this Church was the promise given, “Thou art Peter, and on this rock, &c;” while the Greek Church, because of its schism from the Universal Shepherd, and not being under the apostolic reed or discipline, is but like the temple’s outer court, which is cast out and given to the Gentiles. Already we see this in great part fulfilled; the Saracens having widely laid waste the Greek churches. And it must be desolated yet more; [89] just as the ten schismatic tribes of Israel were in Old Testament times wasted, and carried captive, by the Assyrians. [90] - And, adds Joachim, (here more fully stating his view of the judgments coming on Rome and the Popedom, which views, already hinted under the sixth Trumpet, will occur again at Apoc. xiii. and xvii., and call for the reader’s special notice,) because of the Latin Church not repenting, but adding sin to sin, therefore the Gentiles, after desolating the Greek or outer court, are also to tread for 42 months the holy city, or Latin Church and Empire: [91] - the so defined period being identical with the 3 1/2 times of the reign of Daniel’s little horn, or eleventh king. [92]

On the Apocalyptic Witnesses there arise, says Joachim, the two questions; 1. Who the two? 2. Whether to be taken personally or figuratively? - On the primary question he states the general patristic opinion that they were to be Enoch and Elias; but, with deference, expresses his own opinion that they meant rather Moses [93] and Elias: - the same that appeared together at Christ’s transfiguration, and whom what is said in the Apocalyptic sketch of the Witnesses better suits: viz. their turning the waters into blood, which Moses did, conjointly with other plagues in Egypt; and inducing a drought of 3 1/2 years, which did Elias. - As to the second question, he quotes Jerome, saying, when asked about Enoch and Elias, the then supposed Witnesses to come, “that all the Apocalypse was to be spiritually understood: because otherwise Judaic fables would have to be acquiesced in; such as the rebuilding of Jerusalem, and renewal in its temple of carnal ceremonies.” [94] Whence, argues Joachim, we must suppose that Jerome only expected two individuals, or perhaps two spiritual orders, to come in the spirit and power of Enoch and Elias, so as did John the Baptist previously; to preach, and have the fight with Antichrist. [95] On the whole the leaning of Joachim’s mind seems to be to Jeremiah’s view; and that the spiritual or figurative significance was to be attached to the indicated witnesses, Moses and Elias; the two orders of clerics and monks being perhaps thereby intended: (the latter by Elias who was unmarried: [96] ) some individual preacher having also previously appeared, as in Apoc. x., or some spiritual preaching order, answering to Enoch: which three he further identifies [97] with the three angels in mid-heaven with gospel-voice and warning cry, before the fall of Babylon, described in Apoc. xiv. - At the same time, when coming to the notice of the 42 months of the prophesying, he enunciates both as regards the Apocalyptic Witnesses, and the Beast also that they are to conflict with, a larger and more general explication, as well as the more special: “the 42 months in which they are to preach, clothed in sackcloth, signifying so many generations, of the cleric and monastic witnessing orders;” [98] i.e. according to his own explanation elsewhere, [99] on the year-day principle 1260 years. During all which time, says he, the Gentiles and antichristian unbelievers, even till Antichrist, are to tread the Holy City; though but partially, and not so as under Antichrist proper: - just as we have already seen the outer court (or Greek Church) many years trodden by them. [100] - The Witnesses’ shutting heaven during the time of their prophesying is to be understood figuratively; so as in Isaiah, “Make the heart of this people fat, &c.,” and, “I will command the clouds that they rain on my vineyard:” also the fire evoked by them from heaven, of the power of the Spirit in their words to confound their adversaries. [101] Their being said to stand before the Lord of the whole earth, may mean before Daniel’s little horn, or xith King; (just as Moses and Aaron stood before Pharaoh;) seeing that he, as Prince of the world, is to reign for 3 1/2 times, in judgment on the sins of men. Or, if Christ be meant as the Lord of the whole earth, their standing before him may indicate that in the time of their witnessing, (or at least before its conclusion) Christ is to appear in that character, and to take to himself this earth’s dominion: as it is said in Psalm ii. 8, “I will give thee the heathen for thy inheritance, and uttermost parts of the earth for a possession.” [102]

“And when they shall have completed their testimony, the Beast, &c.” By this Beast (as will be again stated on Apoc. xiii. and xvii.) there seems to be meant “the unbelieving multitude that were to persecute the Church, from Christ’s death down to Antichrist inclusive:” the same as the fourth Beast of Daniel. [103] Which Beast, towards the end of his reign, [104] (false prophets assisting,) with both by fraud and force make war upon the two witness-leaders, and the body of the saints, too, more generally: [105] first however inflicting a death-blow on the Babylon (or Roman) power resisting him. [106] - As to the place of their slaughter it might be the literal Jerusalem, were the two Witnesses to be slain two men literally. Against this, however, stands the fact that Jerusalem is never called the great city, so as Nineveh of Babylon. [107] Therefore we may rather understand generally by the phrase the kingdom of this world; the body of the citizens of which have had part in slaying the saints, and in spirit participated in Christ’s crucifixion: also by the witnesses slain, all the preachers of truth. [108] At the same time, if the prophecy is meant specially about two individual witnesses, the city may be (though still not necessarily so) the literal Jerusalem; Daniel’s 11th king having then proclaimed himself savior of the Jewish people, and led them back to Jerusalem. - As to the 3 1/2 days of the witnesses lying dead, the meaning is affected by the same considerations. If the witnesses be two bodies or successions of men, and the 1260 days of their prophesying be meant typically of the whole time from Christ to the consummation, (already in Joachim’s time near 1260 years,) then the 3 1/2 days must mean some lesser time, after which the kingdom under the whole heaven is to be given to the saints. But if they be two individuals, and the larger specification of time is to be taken literally, then there must be meant the two literal witnesses’ literal resurrection at the brief literal interval of 3 1/2 days: though not the general resurrection of the dead, which is to be not till the end of the world. [109] He speaks of a large gathering of people, on the occasion, and to the place: and says that in the earthquake following, the tenth part of the city (the holy city or Church) which fell meant those clerics who, though professedly in Rome, are yet really infidels, belonging to Antichrist; and who will then openly apostatize from the faith: also that the seven thousand are laymen deceived by these clerics of Antichrist’s faction, and who will also similarly apostatize.

But if Enoch (or perhaps Moses) and Elias are thus to come in the third state before the consummation, how need we to watch and beware, lest any enemy come saying, “We are Enoch and Elias,” and deceive many! Because it is as clear as the light that a Beast with two horns like a lamb is to come; symbolizing false prophets, such as Christ bids us to beware of. [110]

Trumpet 7. - Now the mystery hidden in the Old Testament, from Moses to John the Baptist, will be consummated. - The great voices in heaven are preachers of that ęra in the Church, announcing and rejoicing over the coming good; the 24 typical elders representing the union of all prelates in the song. [111] - The time of the dead being judged is that of the Beast and False Prophet being cast into the lake of fire; Antichrist and his fellows being specially meant in the corrupters of the earth then to be exterminated: [112] at which time will begin the third or sabbath state; [113] corresponding, perhaps, with Apoc. xx. 4, “I saw thrones, &c:” [114] until the saints in the new bodies ascend to inherit the kingdom prepared for them.

I think, adds Joachim, that there will elapse but a brief interval between the sixth trumpet’s sounding and the seventh’s. [115]

PART IV. Apoc. xii. - The travailing Woman here figured, Joachim makes to mean the Church generally; but specially that Church of hermits and virgins, the children of which are the 144,000 of Apoc. xiv.: this Church answering to the prototype of the Virgin Mary, “Queen of heaven;” being clothed with Christ the Sun of righteousness, trampling on all sublunary glory, and bearing the crown of the twelve virtues. [116]

Of the figured Dragon, or Devil, the body are the multitudes of the reprobate; the Dragon’s seven heads, the seven chief Church-persecuting successive kings of the reprobate; [117] his ten horns, ten kings that have yet to reign; [118] his tail, the last antichristian tyrant at the end of the world; the third part (said of the stars drawn by the tail), the same third as in the four first Trumpets. [119]

The Apostolic Church having brought forth Christ, its male child, (as He said, “Who is my mother? Are not these?”) [120] the Devil tried to kill him; but he rose, and ascended into heaven. - In the first battle of martyrs ensuing, Michael, the invisible protector of the Church, acted chiefly through Peter and his successors; [121] the invisible Dragon through the Dragon’s two first heads, Herod and Nero. This great battle may seem to have ended in the days of Constantine. And so the Apocalyptic song of exultation is to be referred to that emperor’s time, when the saints then surviving were crowned with glory. [122] - Thereupon the Devil, (cast down to the earth, or into the hearts of the earthly-minded,) persecuted the woman by means of the Arian heretics and heresy; [123] and she fled to a life of retirement and contemplation: the two wings helping her being wisdom and the love of God; the time of her sojourning in the wilderness (like Elias’ 3 1/2 years of seclusion) being 42 months, or 1260 days; i.e. the while time of the Dragon, and that in which all mysteries are to have their consummation; the water cast out of the mouth against her being Arian heresies and persecutors. [124] - The Dragon’s first war having thus been against Christ and his apostles, the second against the early martyrs under Pagan Rome, the third against the confessors against Arianism, his fourth was to be against those that were given to contemplation, psalms, and prayers. [125]

Apoc. xiii. - The Beast here figured is a compound and combination, says Joachim, of Daniel’s four Beasts. - In Daniel the first Beast was the Jewish Antichristian body; the second the Roman Pagans; the third the Arians; the fourth the Saracens: the first resembling a lion, with two wings, answering to the Pharisees and Sadducees; the second a bear; the third a leopard, with four heads; (signifying the Arian Greeks, Goths, Vandals, and Lombards;) the fourth very terrible, and having ten horns. [126] - How terrible Daniel’s fourth, or Saracenic, is told by its desolation of the churches in Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Africa, Mauritania, and the islands of the sea; where Christ’s name is abolished, and Mahomet acknowledged as the prophet of God. [127] Besides that the other Beasts submitted after a while to the Christian Church: but this, though once humbled and apparently dead, has revived, and is as terrible as ever. The ten horns with diadems are ten kings yet to be, at that closing time of the calamitous period, when the Beast’s kingdom shall end. [128] - “I saw one of the heads as it were wounded to death, and the deadly wound was healed.” The Jewish, Pagan, and Arian heads were actually wounded to death; [129] and who ever heard of their revival? though the Beast itself indeed, (or antichristian body,) survived under another head. But with the Saracen head many may think the prophecy of the wounded head’s revival to have been already fulfilled. In the time of Pope Urban and the early crusaders, A.D. 1095, [130] when Jerusalem had been taken by the Christians, the Saracens in Egypt and Asia made stipendiary, the African neighboring cities conquered by the Norman kings of Sicily, and the Moors repeatedly vanquished in Spain, the Saracen supremacy seemed wounded to death. But how, says Joachim, it is revived, and as terrible as ever. [131] He prefers, however, to understand the deadly wound as still future when he wrote, and to be effected by spiritual weapons rather than temporal: [132] also the revival to be in a power answering to Daniel’s eleventh or little horn: - a horn unspecified by St. John; probably because of his prominent specification of the Dragon, or Devil, who was in fact most specially to inspire and rule in it. [133] Joachim dwells on the fearfulness of the consequent apostasy; “All the world wondered after the Beast:” commiserating those that might then be alive; urging mothers to teach their children to flee for safety to the deserts; and answering the arguments of infidelity, drawn from the enemy’s success and dominancy, by reference to God’s faithfulness and wisdom. “Here is the faith and patience of the saints.” - As to the Beast’s 42 months, 3 1/2 years, or 1260 days of duration, taken generically, with reference to the “totius Bestię universitatem,” the length is stated as 1260 years in Joachim’s Book De Concordiā: [134] besides which there is to be a final paroxysm of the Beast’s persecution for 3 1/2 years literally. [135]

The second Beast, says Joachim, is plainly explained by John himself to signify a false prophet, or pseudo-prophetic sect or body; [136] the two horns being not improbably, he adds, Satan’s counterfeits of the Enoch and Elias that are expected: just as Antichrist will be his counterfeit for Christ. Hence the double danger of receiving the counterfeit as true, rejecting the true as counterfeit! “What if Enoch and Elias were to knock at thy door to-morrow?” [137] - It would seem that these false prophets will issue out of the bosom of the Church; knowing and speaking the Christians’ language, and so more powerful to deceive. [138] These may confederate with the former Beast, Daniel’s eleventh Horn, and make the earth worship it: as Simon Magus confederated with the Pagan Nero against Christianity, the Jews with the Romans, and Arians with the secular emperors; or as the Pathareni, “the dregs of heretics,” now sustain themselves through worldly potentates. [139] And so soon as “the new Babylon” (i.e. Rome) [140] shall have been given into the hand of the Beast to be desolated, and Daniel’s eleventh king (the last of these kings) have begun to reign in the Saracen kingdom, [141] then the false prophets may seize the occasion of making an alliance with the Gentile king; and preach up his religion as true, the Christian as false. [142] - But why two Beasts? Because, as Christ is both anointed king and priest, so Satan may put forth the first beast to usurp his kingship, the second to usurp his priestly dignity: the latter having at its head some mighty prelate, some Universal Pontiff, as it were, over the whole world; who may be the very Antichrist, of whom St. Paul speaks as being extolled above all that is called God and worshipped; sitting in the temple of God, and showing himself as God. [143] This may be while making use of the strength of the Beast for his purposes. - Other doctors regard the first Beast, or Daniel’s eleventh king, and also Gog, as Antichrist: which I, says Joachim, regard as thus far true, because there are, as St. John says, many Antichrists; and what may be wanting of fulfillment in the one, may be supplied in another. [144]

The Beast’s image Joachim makes to mean “some tradition composed by false prophets in memory of the first Beast,” [145] saying that this is the kingdom that is to endure for ever; some expression, I suppose he means, of the Beast’s mind, profession, and doctrine. [146] Its receiving breath and speaking is when the malignant spirit shall do miracles by it. The character to be impressed is some edict of his commands: [147] the sellers and buyers that must bear it, preachers and hearers. - The name and number 666, said to be “the number of a man,” [148] is mysterious. “We must wait and know the name, before speculating as to the number; which name however is not revealed.” This premised, Joachim proceeds to a passing speculation on the subject, as fanciful surely as any of the speculations of his predecessors. The number 666 may be fitly typical, he says, of the whole time from Adam to the end of the world. For 600 may represent the six ages of the world, or whole time of the Beast; 60 the six periods of the sixth age from Christ, in which the Beast has more grievously persecuted the Church of God; 6 the time (42 months) of Daniel’s eleventh king, or little horn, in which the persecution is to be consummated. - This however he admits to be speculation. “Expectanda usque tempus revelatio hujus nominis; et tune ei qui habet intellectum licebit numerum computare.” [149]

Apoc. xiv.through xvi. I must hasten over these intervening chapters to resume and complete the abstract of Joachim’s views on the Apocalyptic Beast, as again described in Apoc. xvii., and the Babylon connected with it. - The 144,000 on Mount Zion he expounds as the monks and virgins of the Church, opposed to those that had the Beast’s mark; and who in the fourth period have to sustain the chief burden of the conflict against the Saracenic Beast: [150] - the first of the three Angels flying in mid-heaven as identical either with the woe-denouncing eagle of Apoc. viii. 13, (i.e. “the holy Pope Gregory I, whose voice of warning of God’s coming judgment was just before the false prophet Mahomet’s deceptions,” [151] ) or the Angel-prophet with the little book of Apoc. x. 1; the other two with the Witnesses of Apoc. xi. respectively; [152] the voice of the first synchronizing with the opening of the 5th Seal, and 5th period; the other two with the opening of the 6th; [153] the last (perhaps the two last) sounding after the destruction of Babylon by the Beast and ten kings; [154] and when, the Roman Christian Empire having thus fallen, they will be hoping to destroy Christ’s name from off the face of the earth. [155] - The voice, “Blessed are the dead, for they rest, &c.,” intimates the glorious sabbath awaiting both those who, after the completion of the sufferings of Christ’s body in the sixth period, shall then reign with Christ; and those too who, Antichrist having fallen, shall remain on earth in this life until the last day: [156] in which day at length will be the harvest of the good, and the vintage-treading of the bad.

So Joachim comes to his PART V., and to the Vials of wrath poured out by the seven Angles: [157] which, though specially called the last plagues, yet had reference to the same six or seven periods, and same evils, that were before noted under the Seals’ and Trumpets’ septenaries; with this difference however, they were now depicted distinctly as effusions of God’s jealousy and wrath against those who suffered from them. [158] Of these Vials the first was poured on Judaizers, who worshipped the Beast under his first head of Herod and the Jewish synagogue: the 2nd on the Gentile Church’s recreants, unfaithful from the Christian faith before Constantine: the 4th on the hypocritical of the contemplative orders: the 5th on false ones in the Clergy and Conventuals, who, thought they ought to be God’s seat, have yet yielded themselves to be the seat of the Beast: [159] the 6th on the Roman State or Empire, as being the New Testament Babylon; the drying up of its Euphrates figuring the weakening of its strength, through God’s just judgment, so as to disable it from resisting the kings of the East that are to come and desolate it. [160] - After which its desolation that “Wicked One” is to be revealed, of whom Paul speaks; the three spirits like frogs, next figured being meant of him and his associates. -And then who can tell how soon Christ may come? “Behold I come as a thief.” - Finally, by the air on which the 7th Vial is poured out, there is meant that spiritual Church which will remain after the judgment on Babylon; a judgment by which it will be cleansed, and made meet for the bridal. [161] - So Joachim comes to the vision of the Harlot and Beast in Apoc. xvii.

PART VI. Apoc. xvii. - The Angel-revealer of this vision is the 6th Vial-Angel; the 6th period, current at the time referred to , being the time of its right understanding. [162] By the harlot he meant Rome: - not indeed the Church of the just that sojourn in Rome, but rather the multitude of Rome’s reprobate or opposing members; the harlot’s place moreover being not in one province or kingdom, but over the whole area of the Christian empire. [163] The kings of the earth that fornicate with her, Joachim makes to be bad prelates with the charge of souls: [164] the Beast (as before) the infidel powers, in connection with the Roman Empire, that have persecuted the Church, from the apostolic age till now. [165] Its seven successive heads are as follows: - 1. Herod and his successors’ Judaic kingdom: 2. the Roman Pagan empire, to Diocletian inclusive: 3, 4, 5, and 6, the four Arian empires, Greek, Goth, Vandal, and Lombard: 7th, the Saracen or Mahommedan empire, now still existing. Besides which, says Joachim, seven kings are mentioned: not as identical with the heads, but simply thus, “And there are seven kings;” i.e. kings eminent among the persecutors. Which kings chronologically correspond with the seven periods of our ęra; though neither chronologically nor politically correspondent with the seven heads: being 1. Herod; 2. Nero; 3. Constantius; 4. Mahomet, or rather perhaps Chosroes; 5. the German Emperor who first troubled the Church about investitures; 6. Daniel’s little horn, or eleventh king; i.e. Saladin, the reigning Saracen or Turk, who has just taken Jerusalem. [166] This is the “one that is,” (the 6th period of the Christian ęra being the standard time present, used by the Angel in his statement;) and under and by whom the Roman Babylon is to be desolated. After which, alike the 6th king and 7th head having perished, (the latter wounded unto death,) a brief respite will be granted for the faithful, then the Beast arise under its revived 7th, i.e. its 8th head, [167] and the 7th king, [168] to make one more persecution, and after it to perish for ever. - With regard to the ten horns, or ten kings, that have not yet received power, but receive it one hour after the Beast, there is a difficulty: for, according to Daniel, it is while these ten are reigning that the eleventh is to arise. Here however it is said, after the Beast; not, after the 6th king. [169] - That the harlot city reigning over the kings of the earth, and to be spoiled by them, means Rome, is undoubted; this being told us not by other Fathers only, but Peter himself: [170] but in the sense of including the members of its empire, not those within the city walls only. The comfort is, adds Joachim, that Jerusalem tarries in Babylon; [171] and that to it the promise is given, “Thou art Peter, &c.:” so that it is only the sons of Babylon, within the Roman Church and empire, to whom the doom belongs. [172] So long as the waters she sits on remain, the kings cannot prevail against her. But when her Euphrates is dried up, then they will attack her; [173] God having put it into the hearts of these “exteri reges” to give their kingdom to the Beast, or ruling chief of the Beast, on seeing his success against the subjects of the Roman empire: the result of which alliance will be the tearing and spoliation of Roman Christendom, together with persecution of Christians and Christianity; whence a general apostasy, though not without some faithful martyrs.

In Apoc. xviii. the kings of the earth that wail over Babylon are wicked prelates: the fire spoken of, that of the eternal punishment of her reprobate members, of which the temporal is but a pledge; the merchandise, that of ecclesiastical functions, bought or bartered by priests for money. [174] - The song of exultation on the fall of Babylon, given in Apoc. xix., Joachim expounds as the song of the Church on earth; escaped out of, and freed from, the New Testament Babylon: a song which he compares with that of the Jews restored with Ezra from the ancient Babylon; and “such as had been never heard in the Church since the days of Constantine.” [175] Its two subjects of congratulation are “the destruction of the Harlot, and the liberty of the Church:” and alike converted Jews, (“for then the Jewish people will be converted to the Lord,”) and Greeks too and Latins will join in it; crying “Hosanna! Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.” [176] The song of the twenty-four elders, &c., is explained to include the answering Alleluia in heaven, as well as of the earthly ecclesiastical orders symbolized by the four living creatures, for the liberation of the righteous, the conversion of the Jews, and bringing in of the fullness of the Gentiles. [177] And so, adds Joachim, will begin that kingdom for which we continually pray, “Thy kingdom come.” - Oh how good, says he, will it be for us to be there: Christ being our shepherd, king, meat, drink, light, life! [178]

But, after this so solemn a rejoicing, there remains yet another tribulation, [179] depicted in the chapter following.

Apoc. xix. “And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse, &c.: and I saw the Beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered to make war, &c.” - Parallel with this, says Joachim, is the prophecy of Zech. xiv. 2; “I will gather all nations to Jerusalem to battle: and the Lord shall go forth and fight against those nations.” - Here is the Beast “which had been, and was not, and is to ascend from the abyss and go into perdition:” i.e. the Beast under his last head: - also the seventh king, which had not yet come, but was about to come, and to continue a short space;” though indeed this king is not here mentioned; as if to intimate that this is the Antichrist, in whom the red Dragon dwells bodily. [180] - This last point however, says Joachim, is doubtful; and whether this seventh king, or the sixth, (the one which is, or he that is called Gog, or any other, be properly Antichrist. What we know is that the sixth king will be worse than the five preceding, and the seventh than the sixth; and that these will be the two last heads of the Dragon. I think, too, that the first will be king over the Beast from the sea, the second over the Beast from the land, or False Prophet. [181] - Whether Christ’s figured manifestation on the white horse, to destroy the Beast in this his last form, be a personal coming, or only providential, is a point doubted by Doctors. At first Joachim inclines to decide on the view of its being a personal coming: both because of what Paul says, “Whom the Lord shall destroy by the brightness of his coming;” and what Christ, “Immediately after the tribulation of these days, they shall see the sign of the Son of Man, &c.” [182] Afterwards he admits that it may be explained of Christ’s acting invisibly in his Church militant. - And what the armies of saints following him on white horses? I think, says he, they must signify either distinctively the saints that rose from the dead when he rose, (Matt. xxvii. 52, “And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose,”,) or all the saints dead in Christ generally, as now to appear with Him; i.e. if Christ’s coming be personal. [183] If not, then they may be Christ’s saints on earth. [184] - The sword from the rider’s mouth is expounded as what St. Paul speaks of, “Whom the Lord shall consume with the breath of his mouth:” (a parallelism deserving notice:) his eyes like fire, as indicating the all-revealing brightness thrown on things at the day of his judgment; like that spoken of by Paul, 1 Cor. iv. 5, “Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise of God.”. [185]

PART VII. Apoc. xx. - So, says Joachim, we come to the seventh Part, in which we have to treat of that great sabbath which is to be at the consummation: a period which I have called The third State, or “seventh age of the world;” and which may be termed the Age of the Spirit, as the two former were of the Father and of the Son. [186] The idea of all secular time and things ending with the fall of Antichrist had been overthrown, he adds, by St. Remigius; who had shown that a certain time, of uncertain length, would still remain after that event: - the idea itself having arisen from want of observation that the last day of Scripture is not to be understood as signifying the last moment of the world; but rather the world’s last age, or time of the end: a point illustrated by St. John’s saying above a thousand years before, “It is the last hour.” [187] Whether Christ’s coming is to be the beginning of this sabbath time, or the end of it, has seemed to some doubtful: but, says Joachim, again reverting to the pre-jubilean  theory, both St. Paul’s and Christ’s own words, referred to above, seem to fix it at the commencement of the sabbath period. [188] - As to this constituting the seventh millennary of years from the world’s creation, Joachim speaks of the idea as set aside by both the Greek and Latin mundane chronology: much more than 6000 years from the world’s creation having past, according to the Greek chronology: and much less (though the time, Joachim thought, must be close at hand) according to the Latin. [189] His own view was, that the Apocalyptic millennary period was specified simply as being a most perfect number: that the binding of Satan spoken of might possibly have had an incipient fulfillment from the time of Christ’s resurrection; and in that sense the Apocalyptic millennium extend from that epoch to the world’s consummation: but that its perfected fulfillment would be in the sabbath-time the Beast’s destruction: [190] - which sabbath might be longer, or shorter, as God pleased; [191] indeed, so short perhaps that the real and chief Antichrist might possibly exist and act in the great antichristian battles both before and after it. [192] But time would unfold this. - As to the first resurrection he conceived it identical with Daniel’s prediction that, after the destruction of the Beast and its little horn, the kingdom and power under the whole heaven should be given to the saints of the Most High; [193] and with that too in Ezek. xxxvii., which speaks of a resurrection before Gog’s coming. [194] Perhaps, he says, on the clause,  “The rest of the dead lived not till the 1000 years were ended,” the saints are then to rise, and enter at once on life eternal, without that terrible ordeal of the judgment of the while throne which others must go through. [195] But he admits difficulties in the view: and the need of waiting for further illustration - As to Gog, he might very possibly be the Antichrist. [196]

The new heaven and new earth Joachim expounds to mean the final blissful state, when the tares shall have been gathered from the wheat, and the just shine as the sun in the kingdom of their Father; [197] - the new Jerusalem, on the other hand, to figure the Church even in its earthly state, and from its first beginning at Christ’s birth. [198]

So I conclude my abstract of Joachim; an abstract which I have made at greater length and in more detail than any other, because of its peculiarly, importance, and interest. [199] For the same reason I subjoin in a Note Roger de Hoveden’s account [200] of Joachim’s Exposition of Apoc. xii. xiii., to our King Richard; whereby we shall be enabled to compare his prophetic views in the year A.D. 1190 with those in A.D. 1196 or 1200. [201]

Moreover, on account of this its peculiarity and interest, I have thought it well worth the while to draw up, and append on the following page, a Tabular Scheme representing it; though certainly no very easy task to me. This will, I think, much facilitate an acquaintance with it on the part of my more intelligent and inquisitive readers.: -

The observant reader cannot but have remarked the novelty of many of Joachim’s views; alike on some of the latter Seals, Trumpets, and Vials; on the year-day construction of the 1260 prophetic days of the Woman and Witnesses; and on the Dragon, Beast, Harlot, and Millennium: views not only conceived with much originality of thought; but also propounded and urged with a measure of earnestness, and conviction of their truth, abundantly greater than had attached to any previous Apocalyptic Exposition, subsequent to the grand epoch of the Gothic overthrow of the Roman empire. - And could these new opinions on the Apocalypse, promulgated thus publicly and earnestly by one so venerated as the Abbot Joachim, fail of exercising a marked influence on the subsequent interpretation of this wonderful prophecy? In truth we find the effect marked and speedy. In the Romish Church itself, while some held mainly to the old generalizing views of Tichonius, Primasius, Ambrose Ansbert, Bede, and Haymo, - of which class Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, both of the xiiith century, were much the most illustrious - others, as Almeric, Pierre d’Olive, &c., quickly followed in the track of Joachim with yet bolder innovations. Moreover certain open dissidents from the Romish Church, despised nearly up to this time as contemptible heretics, began too to make their voice effectively sound forth, on two points at least in which Joachim had innovated; a voice which, after one temporary suppression, has even to the present day never ceased. The fullness with which I have sketched the views of the Tichonian commentators, makes it needless for me to enter at all prominently into others on the same principle: and I shall therefore content myself with innovators just mentioned, whether within or without the Romish Church,

 that I wish to draw my reader’s chief attention, in all that remains of this present fourth Section. placing a brief notice of the Apocalyptic views of Albertus Magnus, and of those of Thomas Aquinas, below. ± It is to these innovators just mentioned, whether within or without the Romish Church, that I wish to draw my reader’s chief attention, in all that remains of this present fourth Section.

±. Albertus Magnus.

The celebrity of this man is handed down to posterity in his surname, Albert the Great. He is spoken of by Mosheim as a man of vast abilities, and the literary dictator of his time. Born early in the thirteenth century, he was in 1260 made Bishop of Ratisbon; but soon retired again to the Dominican convent at Pudua, of which he was Provincial: and, after a life spent in study, died there in 1281. His works are said to make up twenty-one folio volumes. His Treatise on the Apocalypse was printed separately at Bosle in small 4to, in 1506; the edition which I now have in hand.

His frequent reference to Haymo is stated in a commentary Preface prefixed by one Bernard of Luxembourg, of the order of Preachers. “Sępe etiam in roborationem dictorum suorum allegans Haymonem; unum de antiquioribus expositoribus Apocalypseos: qui fuit magister Karoli Magni, monachus Ordinis Sancti Benedicti.” But he refers to Bede quite as much, I think, as to Haymo: also sometimes to one Gilbert, who seems to have been a commentator of celebrity in the preceding century; and not seldom moreover to “the Gloss.”*

*Meaning, I suppose, when so cited, the Glossa Ordinaria, or earliest Latin Catena of Scripture Comment, compiled by Walfrid Stabo, finally Abbot of Reichenau, a monastery near Constance in German Switzerland, who died about A.D.850. He was often called Fuldensis from having studied at the School at Fulda, (so Gieseler ii. 32,) and Strabo from his squinting. - The Glossa Interlinearis was compiled by Anselm of Laon in the 11th century. On which Dr. S. R. Maitland had to remark in his controversy with the Morning Watch, p. 20.

On (Apoc. xi. 3, “And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth.”), &c. Albert cites the “Glossa,” and also in “alia Glossa” differing from the former.

The following points seem to me the most noticeable in Albert’s Apocalyptic Commentary

The Epistles he considers to have depicted the Church Universal, with reference to its state in its successive chronological periods: - viz. 1 that of the apostles; 2. of the post-apostolic martyrs to Constantine; 3. that of the Arian struggle, and struggle with other heretics, in the 4th and 5th centuries; 4. that of the confessors and doctors afterwards, during whose time Mahomet introduced his heresy; 5. that of still later time (I suppose commencing from Charlemagne) during which the temporalities of the Church were increased; 6. that of the time then present; (‘per hanc signantur moderni in ecclesią;”) 7. and lastly, that of the future time, apparently of Antichrist. - In the second Epistle, to Smyrna, he suggests (like Bede), as an alternative explanation of the ten days of tribulation spoken of, that it may have reference to the ten persecuting kings designated by the Beast’s ten horns; viz. Nero, Domitian, Trajan, Antonine, Severus Maximin, Decius, Valerian, Aurelian, Diocletian; or perhaps to “the times of ten Popes, the ten persecuted Popes, I presume] after Clement.”

As a general view of the Seals, he cites and acquiesces in Bede’s explanation. “Secundłm Bedam in primo sigillo orditur status primitivę ecclesię; in tribus sequentibus bellum cłm ecclesią triforme: &c.” also in his view of the half-hour’s silence on the seventh Seal’s opening, as betokening the “quietis ęteraę initium:” of which, says Albert, Bede thus observes, “Post interitum Antichristi requies aliquantula futura creditur in ecclesia.”

See pp. 167, 168 supra

In the Trumpets Albert again for the most part follows Bede: but more chronologically, as in reference to judgments that occurred on the reprobate in nearly the same chronological periods as before; the sixth being that of Antichrist’s invasion. - In Apoc. x. the vision passes, according to Albert (after Bede), to describe Christ’s descent from heaven at his incarnation; the seven thunders being the voices of preachers, terrible form the denouncing of the seven-fold punishment of the lost, (viz. exclusion from the saints’ inheritance, and from the vision of God, &c., &c.,) understood by the good, sealed to infidels. - In Apoc. xi. the temple means the Church; the casting out, the excommunication from it of false brethren. The 42 months are explained both generally of all the time of the wicked trampling the Church, and especially of the 3 and a half times of Antichrist; the two witnesses as Enoch and Elias; (though some, evidently Joachim, had lately said Moses and Elias;) the place of their slaughter as the literal Jerusalem, where Christ had been himself literally crucified, and would now be crucified figuratively in his members; the 3 and a half days of their laying dead in the sense either of 3 and a half years from after Antichrist’s death, on the year-day principle; or more probably of 3 and a half days after their death.

[‡ Mr. C. M. (p. 333) speaks of Albert’s having “even attempted to clear the Gloss of the charge of countenancing the year-day principle,” and of the “attack” made on it by him such effect that “it never again held up its head.” I cite Albert’s two notices on the point, that the reader may judge. - 1. “Dieit, Et post 3 1/2 dies: id est post 3 1/2  annos post mortem Antichrist. Et sic sumitur dies pro anno: et sic intelligunt illud de generali resurrectione. Sed probabilius videtur quņd quarto die resurgunt ą suą interfectione, sieut alii exponunt.” (So on Apoc. xi. 11, “And after three days and an half the Spirit of life from God entered into them, and they stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon them which saw them.”). Then, 2ndly, at the end of Apoc. xi., in his notice of the “dubitabilia” of the chapter. “Tertio quęritur super illo verbo, post 3 1/2 dics. Glossa; post 3 1/2 annos post mortem Antichrist. Contrą, post eorum morten non regnabit (Antichristus) tantum. Responsio: - Quartą die post mortem resurgent. Et, quod objicitur de Glossą, dicendum quņd 3 1/2 anni non computantur ą morte eorum, nee a morte Antichristi; sed a principio suę prędicationis, vei a tempore potestatis Antichristi. Sensus est Glossę, post 3 1/2 annos ab eorum prędicatione, vei Antichrist potestate, quę terminabitur in ejus morte.”]

- In Apoc.xii. the woman is explained as either the Church, or the Virgin Mary: the twelve stars of the coronet meaning, on the former hypothesis, the twelve apostles; on the latter, the twelve prerogatives of the blessed Virgin: while the Dragon’s seven heads figure the seven evils spirits, and his ten horns the ten kings, as In Dan. vii. - In Apoc. xiii. the Beast is Antichrist: (or possibly, as Haymo, the Devil:) the seven heads signifying all powers adhering to him; or else the chiefs of iniquity from the beginning, Cain, Nimrod, the four empires, Antichrist. God’s tabernacle, blasphemed by him, meant Christ’s flesh, perhaps, in which dwelt the fullness of the Godhead bodily: (might not questions about transubstantiation have suggested themselves to Albert as he wrote this?) or else Christ’s saints. - The second Beast signified the preachers of Antichrist: the image of the Beast, a conformity to Antichrist, urged on men by the preachers: (“sic dicit Glossa et Haymo:”) or perhaps a material image. The name and number 666, construed in Greek words, might be, as Bede says, antemov or teitan: the latter as the sun of righteousness, which Antichrist would call himself: or perhaps, adds Albert, with the same idea, in Latin words, Dic Lux; in the sense “Die me esse Lucem.” A conceit this last copied from Ansbert. [202]

The seven Vials are described as the seven last plagues on the reprobate, in the times of Antichrist; though the specification following might lead us to suppose a succession of plagues was meant from the earliest promulgation of Christianity: “In primą continetur damnatio Judęorum reproborum; in secundą Gentilium reproborum; in terrią hęreticorum; in quartą damnatio Antichristi; in quintą suorum ministrorum; in sextą falsorum Christianorum; in septimą dęmonum.” - The great city Babylon is stated to mean that “vanitatis mundanę:” the seven mountains, all the proud: the seven kings, those of chief wickedness in the course of all time; 1. those before the flood; 2. those from Noe to Abraham; 3. those from Abraham to Moses; 4. those from Moses to the Babylonish captivity; 5. those from that captivity to Christ; 6. those from Christ to the time then present; 7. Antichrist. The ten horns might either ten kingdoms into which the Roman empire was to be divided in the time of Antichrist, or all the reprobate.

On the millennium Albert repeats the old Augustinian explication. The New Jerusalem he interprets as a figure of the saints’ glorified state.

2. Thomas Aquinas.

This angelic doctor of the Romish Church was a pupil of Albertus: but ran a shorter career than his master: the date of his birth being 1224, of his death 1274. The scene of his literary labors and triumphs was Italy; chiefly Naples, where he died. His canonization, or (as the recent Popish Editor and Annotator [203] of his work De Antichristo, [204] which is the subject of my present notice, characteristically expresses it) his apotheosis, was solemnized in 1323. Whence a question as to the supposed early date of the MS.; superscribed as it is as a work of St. Thomas. But, it seems, his fame was such, that the Pope’s act was anticipated by the public voice; and the title saint attached to him ever before the year 1330, per prolepsin.

His subject Antichrist, leads him necessarily to speak of Apoc. xi., xiii., xvii., concerning the Apocalyptic Witnesses, Beast, and Babylon.

He begins by noting what is to precede the preaching of the two witnesses, Enoch and Elias: - viz. a universal agitation of the people, as predicted by Christ, (Luke xxi. 25, 26, “And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; 26: Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken.”); a general religions hypocrisy, as predicted by St. Paul, (1 Tim. iv. 1, “Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;”); and, agreeably with St. Paul’s prophecy to the Thessalonians, an apostasia, or defection of the nations included in its empire from the Roman rule: the Roman empire meant being still existent, having only changed from a temporal empire into a spiritual; and thus a defection indicated from the Roman ecclesiastical government and faith, as well as from its temporal rule. [205]

In the Apocalyptic prophecy of the Witnesses, he explains the fire out of their mouths figuratively of their “scientia spiritualis;” the city of their slaughter, like Albertus, as the literal Jerusalem; [206] the Lord’s crucifixion spoken of by the narrating Angel, like him also, as both literally and figuratively meant; and the witnesses “tormenting them that dwell on the earth,” as those “quorum damnationem prędixerunt, et contradicendo inqquitati corum.” - On their

And, in so doing, it will be with special reference to these two grand hermeneutic innovations which I alluded to as so important in Joachim’s explanation; viz. 1. that of the Apocalyptic Babylon being in a certain sense Papal Rome; 2. that of the predicted Antichrist’s probable elevation to the throne of a Universal Pontiff, in fact the Papal throne. The careful guards with which Joachim fenced

resurrection he discusses the question whether they are so to rise, like Lazarus, as to die again? and concludes in the negative: and, on the earthquake concurrent with their ascension, explains the tenth of the city that fell to mean many just that will then fall by the sword of the enraged Antichrist; the 7000 being the number that never bowed the knees to him. Thus he regards that city here meant as the holy city spoken of (Apoc. xi. 2, “But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two months.”); which, as well as the temple of (Apoc. xi. 1, “And there was given me a reed like unto a rod: and the angel stood, saying, Rise, and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and them that worship therein.”), he interprets (p. 121) to signify the Church.

Then, on Antichrist, he makes the literal Babylon his birth-place; explaining what is said in Apoc. xvii. about Babylon “being drunk with the blood of the saints,” of the blood of saints killed in Old Testament times, before Christ’s coming; also, like Adso [207] (after Augustine, [208] ) tells of his nourished in Chorazin and Bethsaida, and infused with the Magian philosophy of Babylon. The Beast’s (or Antichrist’s seven heads he makes all bad princes adhering to him; the ten horns (like Andreas [209] ) his anti-decalogic enmity. - The second Apocalyptic Beast he expounds, after Albert, to be Antichrist’s false apostles and preachers: the two horns like a lamb indicating their (professedly) preaching Christ, holding Christian doctrine, and professing Christ’s miracle-working power; but all in falsehood. [210] “They will in fact exalt their head Antichrist, as we exalt Christ.” he speaks (p. 87) of Antichrist making war with the saints, “per blandimenta et promissiones et exhortationes,” and this even (p. 114) by urging the authority of Scripture, as well as by violence; repeats the old patristic notion that he will pretend to be Messiah to gain the Jews, and build the temple at Jerusalem: also (p. 92) that, to gain the Gentiles, he will utter oracular statutes, answering to the Apocalyptic Beast’s speaking image, and to Daniel’s maozim. Elsewhere (p. 82) he adds Albert’s explanation of the Beast’s image, as meaning resemblance to him in heart. - He alludes to some of the Vials in the course of his argument. The 4th Vial poured out on the sun, (p. 101,) means poured out on Antichrist; because Antichrist “se solem existimabit, et diest mundum illuminatum per cum esse: ipse enim sibi usurpabit, nomen veri solis, id est Christi.“ (I have elsewhere quoted this viz. in my Vol. ii. p. 69, in illustration of the notable fulfillment in the Roman Popes of some of the chief Roman doctors’ own declared anticipations about Antichrist.) Further, on the 6th Vial, he advances the extraordinary fancy, that by “the waters of the Euphrates being dried up” we are to understand the interdiction of the waters of baptism, in order thereby to a preparation of the way of Antichrist. The denounced going into captivity of those that send into captivity, &c., he explains of Antichrist’s being sentenced to the prison of hell; so perishing by “the sword” of divine justice. (129.) I may add that in one place, (ii. 67,) he makes the scorpion-locusts’ tormenting power in Apoc. ix., (elsewhere, i. 99, expounded of Antichrist’s false preachers,) to signify the tormenting power of bad angels over the lost in hell; so that these wretches shall “wish to die, and not be able.”

Finally, with reference to the consummation, he, like Bede and Albert, explains the half-hours silence, in (Apoc. viii. 1, “And when he had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour.”), of a certain respite-time of tranquility for the gospel-preaching of the 7th trumpet, before the end of the world; and with Bede too [211]

these opinions, so as that they should neither impeach, nor be inconsistent with, his fidelity to the Romish See, are almost amusing. Though Babylon meant Papal Rome, including its subject states, yet this was chiefly with reference to the imperial Ghibelline Romanist, both princes and priests, and the evil-minded multitudes existing in it; so as still to leave to Rome’s Papal Church itself its promised prerogative of infallibility; “Thou art Peter, &c.” [212] Again, though Antichrist, it would seem, was to sit on the Papal throne, yet this, in Joachim’s view, would of course be as a usurper of that throne. [213] But the fitting of Scripture prophecy with the living reality of Papal Rome, in respect not of the disaffected and evil-minded in it, but of the religious system, ecclesiastical government, and head there actually enthroned, enthroned in mighty supremacy over Western Christendom, (for the contingency of Rome’s revived empire, looked on by Andreas some six centuries before as scarce imaginable, [214] had indeed now more than had fulfillment,) this fitting, I say, when the idea had once been bruited, was too striking not to impress itself deeply on many a thinking mind in Christendom. Scarce had Joachim rendered up his last breath among his brethren, when one and another and another, more or less following Joachim, took up and expressed the view.

makes it to include Daniel’s last 45 days of the 1335, following on Antichrist’s reign during the 1290: a tranquility soon issuing in a general state of carnal security, such as in (1 Thess. v. 3, “For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape.”). - Of the millennial binding of Satan he in one place (i. 119, 120) gives the old Augustinian explanation, as having reference to time past, and commencing from Christ’s ministry: yet seems elsewhere (ii. 63) to apply it to a judgment on the Devil after Antichrist’s destruction. “In illą  sententią ultimi judicii pręerunt excecutioni Michael et omnes angeli, qui pręerunt malis angelis ad torquendum: qui et religabit Sathanam et omnem virtutem ejus; Apoc. xx. 1, “And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand.” It was another step, in the track of Joachim Abbas, to the abandonment of the so long received millennial theory of Augustine. - Once more the New Jerusalem symbol and state is explained of the saints’ heavenly state after the judgment: (ii. 88;) and among the hallelujahs of praise attending its introduction (90), Thomas Aquinas somewhat fancifully expatiates on the music of the seven planetary spheres.

3. First Almeric and his disciples (teachers alluded to, I see, by Thomas Aquinas) declared that Rome was Babylon, and the Roman Pope Antichrist. [215] At the same time they proclaimed, agreeably with the predictions of Joachim, that the Third Age, the Age of the Holy Spirit, a time of light and reformation, had even then begun to dawn with the opening of the new xiiith century: [216] the rumor being also widely and influentially circulated by them, that the Franciscans, in their revival of preaching, were the fulfillment of the prefigurative Apocalyptic vision of the Angel flying abroad with the everlasting gospel, to preach to every nation under heaven. [217] - Then, a few years later, Jean Pierre d’Olive, another professed follower of Joachim, and leader in Languedoc of the austerer and more spiritual section of the recently-formed Franciscan body, in a Work entitled Postils on the Apocalypse, affirmed that “the Church of Rome was the Whore of Babylon, the Mother of Harlots, the same that St. John beheld sitting upon a scarlet-colored Beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns:” [218] and the chief and proper Antichrist a pseudo-Pope: [219] also, very remarkably, that some reformation, with fuller effusion of gospel light, might probably be expected prior to Rome’s final predicted destruction; in order that, through its rejection of that light, of God’s destruction of it might be the rather justified before the world.

The same view of Papal Rome was echoed by not a few other profest Romanists. And so, however inconsistent these its propagators, it traveled down through the xiiith century; to be stereotyped in the xivth for all literary posterity, in Dante’s Inferno, [220] and the Epistles of Petrarch. [221] - Moreover, near about the same time with Pierre d’Olive, by another professedly Romanist expositor, the usual strange oversight as to the predicted disruption of the old Roman empire into ten kingdoms having long before taken place was in a certain manner corrected. I allude to Eberhard, Bishop of Salzburg: who, in the Council of Ratisbon, held A.D. 1240, while declaring that the Popes under a shepherd’s skin concealed the wolf, and that Hildebrand, 170 years, before, had laid the foundations of the Babylonian Empire of Antichrist, - declared also that the old Roman Empire had been long taken away from the earth, according to St. Paul’s prophecy, the new Western Empire being but a name and shadow: [222] and that there had risen in its place ten horns, Tureę, Gręci, Ęgyptii, Afri, Hispani, Galli, Angli, Germani, Siculi, Itali;” and among, and over them, the Pontifical little horn, having eyes and speaking great things.” [223] - Further, a century or so later, another expositor, Oremius, in a Treatise about Antichrist, suggested with reference to “the great city” of the death of the Witnesses, “spiritually called Sodom and Egypt,” that, though more probably Jerusalem, yet it might also very possibly be Papal Rome; and, as to the place of Antichrist’s birth, that although Babylon, yet this might be Babylon in its figurative sense of Rome. [224]

4. Meanwhile, in a different and purer channel, - I mean among the Waldensian Schismatics, or rather Waldensian Witnesses for Christ, - the same idea, quite independently taken up, was never thenceforth forgotten; and was thus transmitted downwards by them to the Wicliffites and Hussites of the xivth and xvth centuries. Already before Joachim had published his Apocalyptic Book, as it would seem, the Waldenses in their Noble Lesson had hinted that whereas the Antichrist was to come, “even then there were many Antichrists;” meaning, but as opposers of Christ. [225] In 1207 we find the Waldensian Arnold asserting and defending in a public disputation at Carcassonne, the proposition that Rome was the Babylon and Harlot of the Apocalypse. [226] About A.D. 1250 Reinerius tells us that this representation of Papal Rome, and of the Pope being the head of all errors, was one of the Waldensian heresies: [227] and somewhat later, perhaps a century or more later, the whole theory is developed in their treatise on Antichrist. [228]

5. And then next, turning to another country, but to religionists of perhaps Valdensic origin, [229] and certainly on main points of Valdensic principles, we find the same mighty truth (for such I must beg permission to call it) proclaimed by Wicliffe, [230] and his Wicliffite followers. Among whom, A.D. 1391, Walter Brute’s testimony stands so conspicuous, as detailed to us by the venerable Foxe from original documents, [231] written and registered on his being brought before the Bishop’s Court at Hereford, that I think I cannot better conclude this Section than by a brief abstract of it, as exhibiting the Wicliffite Apocalyptic views.

It seems then that this Walter Brute, by nation a Briton or Welshman, who was “a layman and learned, and brought up in the University of Oxford, being there a graduate,” was accused of saying, among sundry other things, that “the Pope is Antichrist, and a seducer of the people, and utterly against the law and life of Christ.” Being called to answer, he put in first certain more brief “exhibits:” [232] then “another declaration of the same matter after a more ample tractation;” [233] explaining and setting forth from Scripture the grounds of his opinion. In either case his defense was grounded very mainly on the Apocalyptic prophecy. For he at once bases his justification on the fact, as demonstrable, of the Pope answering alike to the chief of the false Christs prophesied of by Christ, as to come in his name; to the Man of Sin prophesied of by St. Paul; and to both the first Beast, and Beast with the two lamb-like horns, in the Apocalypse: the city of Papal Rome answering also similarly to the Apocalyptic Babylon.

No doubt, he admits, this had been a mystery long hidden. But if so, and only recently revealed, it would not be unaccordant with God’s dealings and declarations. [234] “Make the heart of this people fat, that seeing they may not see, &c.,” was said by Isaiah of a long permitted judicial blindness on the Jews; and again by Daniel, ch. xii., in one of the self-same visions that would now come into question, “Seal up the vision till the time of the end:” (let my reader mark this just application of that prophetic statement:) also, as to the revealer of them, Apoc. ii., “He hath the key of David, and openeth and no man shutteth:” and, with reference to the persons revealed to, Dan. ii. 30, “As for me, this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have:” and Luke x. 21, “Thou hast revealed them unto babes.” - Nor was reason wanting why the revelation should be made now, in respect of time, said Walter Brute; and here, in the British nation. [235] 1. Now: because there are signs of Christ’s coming being near at hand, to reform his Church; and by the disclosing of Antichrist to call men again to the perfection of the gospel, from their heathenish rites, and ways of the Gentiles, by whom the Holy City was to be trampled for 42 months.” [236] 2 Here, in Britain, as being by God’s special favor the earliest kingdom converted to the Christian faith; viz. under King Lucius, when Eleutherius was Bishop of Rome: [237] and in effect the very wilderness (here begin Walter’s special Apocalyptic interpretations) in which the Woman, the Church, (after by faith bringing forth Christ into the world, who was soon taken up to God and his throne,) did, on the Dragon or Devil’s persecuting her, thus early take refuge: where too, when the Serpent, especially under Diocletian, sent waters of persecution after her to drown her, “the earth, i.e. the [British] stableness of faith, [238] helped the Woman by supping up the water of tribulation;” and where subsequently, for the 1260 days, or, as was meant, 1260 years of the prophecy, (a period otherwise expressed by a time, times, and half a time, [239] ) the true faith had ever since continued.

Then he passes to the great subject of Antichrist. - Very vain, he says, had been the usual and long-received ideas about Antichrist: [240] ideas as of one that was to be born in Babylon of the tribe of Dan, to circumcise himself, give himself out as the Messias, or Christ, come for the Jews’ salvation, and preach 3 1/2 years where Christ preached; then in three ways to seduce the people of Christendom, viz. “with miracles, and gifts, and torments;” [241] and to fight with the two Witnesses, Enoch and Elijah, and kill them, and be himself finally slain by lightning. Vain too what often added, as to Daniel’s 1290 days, or 3 1/2 times, of the abomination of desolation, having application to Antichrist’s being worshipped for that number of days in God’s temple; and then the 45 days additional of the 1335 signifying 45 days of repentance granted to such as should have worshipped Antichrist: [242] - also the explanation of the Beast with seven heads and ten horns; as meant of a yet future Antichrist. For all this, argues Walter, both Scripture and reason contravene. How is it likely that one avowedly of the tribe of Dan should propose himself, and be believed on both by Jews and Christians, as Christ when it is notorious to both that Christ is of the tribe of Judah? [243] Or how again, when coming as a man of war and bloodshed: whereas the character of Christ’s coming is foretold as one of peace, under which men should beat their swords into ploughshares and pruning-hooks? - Then he opens his own view of those prophecies. 1. That in Dan. xii. 11, which says that “from the time of the sacrifice being taken away, and the abomination of desolation set up, there shall be 1290 days,” refers plainly to what was said in Dan. ix.: - how that “after 70 weeks Christ should come; and that he would confirm the covenant with many for one week; and in the half week the sacrifice and offering should cease; and in the temple there should be an abomination of desolation: and even to the fulfilling up of all, and to the end, shall the desolation continue.” For, as the 70 weeks after which Christ was to be slain meant weeks of years, not days, so, similarly, the 1290 days of the desolation meant 1290 years: and the prophecy had fulfillment in the fact of the Romans destroying Jerusalem; and, on its last desolation which has ever since continued, now nearly about 1290 years; and which was to continue till the revealing, or in other words the exposure, of Antichrist. - 2ndly, in Apoc. xiii. the first Beast there figured in vision with seven heads and ten horns, which men explain of an imagined yet future Antichrist, meant rather the Roman emperors; who did much persecute the Lord’s people, both Jews and Christians. For the Woman seen seated on this Beast afterwards was expounded by the angel to mean the city on seven hills, “which then reigned over the kings of the earth,” i.e. Rome; “a city supported by her cruel and beastly emperors.” - and its power was to continue 42 months, or 1260 days, i.e. 1260 years; a day being (as before) meant for a year: just as also the ten days of tribulation predicted to the Church of Smyrna signified the ten years of Diocletian’s persecution; and the 5 months, or 150 days, of the scorpion-locusts of Apoc. ix. the 150 years of the locust-like begging friars from their first rise to their primary exposure by Armachanus. [244] And the prophecy was fulfilled in the duration of the Roman empire just 1200 years; from its commencement under Julius Caesar, to the death of its last emperor, Frederic. [245]

But then “who is the Antichrist, lying privy in the hid Scriptures of the prophets?” - “I now pass on to the declaration of that conclusion,” says Walter Brute; “bringing to light the things which lay hid in darkness. For what was said in the darkness let us say in the light; and what we have heard in the ear let us preach upon the house-tops.” If then, proceeds he, the high Bishop of Rome, calling himself God’s servant, and Christ’s chief Vicar in this world, do make and justify many laws contrary to Jesus Christ, then must he be the chief of those false Christ’s foretold by Christ, as to come in his name, and deceiving many. Now 1st, as to the fact of the Popes calling themselves Christs, it is evident: since Christ means anointed, a characteristic and appellation specially applied in Scripture to kings and priests; both of which the Popes claim to be, as both high priests and chief kings, invested authoritatively alike with the temporal and spiritual sword. Then 2ndly, as to the difference of Christ’s laws and the Pope’s, the first of Christ’s laws is that of love; but the Pope wageth war both against infidels and against Christians. And though it be alleged that miracles have been done by those who have preached or engaged in such crusading wars, yet does not this justify them; because “for no miracles may we do contrary to the doctrines of Christ.” [246] And, as to miracles, did not the Egyptian magicians perform them? Is it not said by Christ that false prophets would rise, that would do them? by Paul, that Satan was transformed into an angel of light? by Christ again, that at the last day he would have to reject many saying to him, “We have prophesied in thy name, and in thy name done wonderful works?” even as the second Apocalyptic Beast was said to do miracles? The standard of truth must be God’s word. “Is not my word like fire, &c?” - Further, Christ’s second law might be said to be that of forgiveness and mercy: mercy to sinners. But here too how contrary the Pope’s and priest’s law: giving judicial sentence of death, and perhaps exciting crusading wars against heretics. In which last act there is a practical ante-dating of times, too. For Christ said that here the tares were to grow with the wheat; and the separation to be made by himself only at the time of the day of judgment. [247] Whereas the Pope would have the separation made by himself now; so changing times, as well as laws.

Then next our confessor and prophetic expositor proceeds to argue against the Romish doctrines of the keys, auricular confession, transubstantiation, and a sacrificing priesthood. [248] And, after describing the universal and awful habit with all classes of the priesthood, of “selling prayers, pardons, &c,” in direct contradiction to Christ’s charge, “Feely ye have received, freely give,” he breaks into the exclamation; [249] “I would to God that all the buyers and sellers of spiritual suffrages would with the eyes of their heart behold the ruin of the great city Babylon, and that which they shall say after that fall. For doth not the prophet say, ‘And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn for her, because no man shall buy any more their merchandise; crying, Alas! that great city Babylon, because that in one hour she is to become desolate?’” - Then he expounds the second Beast as the Popes, with their assumed kingly and priestly power; speaking like a dragon, and allowing none to sell their spiritual pardons, &c., but such as bore their mark; interprets the Beast’s name, with the number 666, to be DVX CLERI; and concludes [250] with another earnest word of warning from Apoc. xix.: “My counsel is, let the buyer be aware of those marks of the Beast! For, after the fall of Babylon, ‘If any man hath worshipped the Beast and his image, and hath received the mark on his forehead or on his head, he shall drink of the wine of God’s wrath, and be tormented with fire and brimstone in the sight of the holy angels and of the Lamb; and the smoke of their torments shall ascend evermore.’”

[1] It is given in D’Achery’s Spicilegium, Vol. i. 161.

[2] “Equus albus primus est status ecclesię, candore miraculorum nitidus et pulcher rimus.” 166.

[3] “Hęretici. . . qui, dum in manu suā dolosam stateram trutinantes habent, ęquitatem de fide disputundo proponunt; sed minus cautos levissimo unius vel minimi verbi pondere fullunt, et in partem sui erroris pertrahunt.”

[4] Norbert, a contemporary of Anselm, and friend of the celebrated Bernard, is an example of the expectation entertained at this point by some persons of reputation, of the speedy appearance of Antichrist. See my Vol. ii. p. 368, Note 2.

[5] Compare pp. 154, 155, 162, 163 suprą.

[6] See Moreri in his Dictionary, on the article Joachim.

[7] I take my account from Fleury’s Histoire Ecclesiastique, Liv. lxxiv. - Luke makes this year 1183, the date of the commencement of Joachim’s writing: - “Il en obtint In permission d'éerire, et commenca ą le faire.” Ibid.

[8] “L'Abbč me donna ą lui pour lui servir de secretaire; et j'éerivos jour et nuit dana des cahiera ce qu'il dictoit et corrigeoit sur des brouillons, avee deux autres moines ses éerivains.” - The intimate connection of the two Works will appear at my p. 187.

[9] “The same year (1190) Richard hearing by common report, and by the relation of many persons, that there was a certain ecclesiastic of the Cistereian order in Calabria, named Joachim, abbot of Curacio, who had the spirit of prophecy, and predicted future events to the people, sent for him; and took pleasure in hearing the words of his prophecy, and wisdom, and learning. For he was a man learned in the Holy Scriptures; and interpreted the visions of St. John the Evangelist, which the same John relates in the Apocalypse, which he wrote with his own hand: in hearing which the king of England and his followers took great delight.”

What follows in Roger respecting Joachim’s explanation of Apoc. xii., xiii., xvii., and of the Woman, Dragon, and Beast Antichrist, there symbolized, is given at p. 202 infrą

[10] My edition is that of Venice, 1527; of 221 leaves.

[11] See pp. 191, 192 infrą. Again, he is one place seems to allude to A.D. 1200, as the date of his final recension. See my Note 2 or possibly 4, p. 192

See p. 7 infr “The same year (1190) Richard hearing by common report, and by the relation of many persons, that there was a certain ecclesiastic of the Cistereian order in Calabria, named Joachim, abbot of Curacio, who had the spirit of prophecy, and predicted future events to the people, sent for him; and took pleasure in hearing the words of his prophecy, and wisdom, and learning. For he was a man learned in the Holy Scriptures; and interpreted the visions of St. John the Evangelist, which the same John relates in the Apocalypse, which he wrote with his own hand: in hearing which the king of England and his followers took great delight.”

What follows in Roger respecting Jonchim’s explanation of Apoc. xii., xiii., xvii., and of the Woman, Dragon, and Beast Antichrist, there symbolized, is given at p. 418 infrą. Again, he in one place seems to allude to A.D. 1200, as the date of his final recension. At Leaf 9/2, he allows two generations, or some 60 years, from A.D. 1200, as the interval of transition from the second to the third state. I shall have to remark afterwards on certain inconsistencies and obscurities in his statements about his 6th and 7th Periods.

[12] “Breve Admonitorium seu Preceptorium Summi Pontificis, ut quąm citius perficiat expositionis Apocalypsis, et se Pontitici presentet.”

“Clemens Episcopus, servus servorum Dei, dilecto filio Joachim Abbati de Curatio, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.

Canonis suadet, et debitum evangelieę charitatis, ut in cunetis actibus nostris ad id plurimum intendemus, aualiter secundum veritatis evangelicę testimonium opera nostra bona luceant coram hominibus; ut ex eis proficiendi materiam capiant, et exemplum. Quum igitur, jugente et exhortante honę memorię Lucio Papa prędeccasore nostre, expositionem Apocalypsis et Opus Concordię inchoasse, et postmodum auctoritate Damini Papę Urbani successoris ipsius composuisse dicaris, caritatem tuam monemus et exhortamur in Domino, per Apostolica Scripta mandantes, quatenus laboribus tuis in hac parte peroptatum et debitum finem imponens, (gratią Domini prosequente,) ad utilitateni preximorum opus illud complere, et diligenter studeas emendare; veniensque ad nos quąm citius opportunitas aderit, discussioni apostolicę sedis, et judicio, ut pręsentes. Sin velis in abscondito retinere, diligenti curą prospicias quą possis Summi Patris-familias offensam de talento scientię tibi credito satisfactione placare.” Leaf 1/2 *

Datum Late, secto Idus Junii, Pontificatłs nostri anno primo. (i.e. A.D. 1188.)

* N.B. In what ensues a numerai so marked, 1/2 signifies the second page of the Leaf.

[13] The date given is MC; which is evidently incorrect. I presume it should be MCC. Leaf 1/2

[14] It occupies from Leaf 2/2 to 26/2.

[15] Leaf 5/2

[16] Leaf 6.

[17] Leaf 6/2

[18] See his Leaf 6 to 10.

[19] See p. 189, Notes 1575 and 1576, infrą

[20] An evident anachronism; as it was not till long after Malachi and the Syro Macedonians oppressed the Jews. But (L. 8) he calls Haman a Macedonian.

[21] At Leaf 9/2, he allows two generations, or some 60 years, from A.D. 1200, as the interval of transition from the second to the third state. I shall have to remark afterwards on certain inconsistencies and obscurities in his statements about his 6th and 7th Periods.

[22] What sabbath in St. John’s days?

[23] Leaf 9/2.

[24] Leaf 17/2.

[25] From L. 26/2 to L. 99

[26] Extending from L. 99 to L. 123.

[27] So. L. 106, on Apoc. iv. 6.

[28] So on the opening of the four successive Seals, L. 114-116.

[29] Joachim often cites St. Paul’s saying, “For the letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life.”

[30] Joachim suggests various other fanciful analogies.

[31] Joachim omits the last clause of the verse. “And power was given over the fourth part (or over four parts) of the earth, to kill with the sword, and with famine, and with pestilence, and with wild beasts.” So that we cannot clearly tell which reading he followed, the 4 parts, or the 4th part.

I suppose however that he read four parts; because, in explaining the symbol of Mahomet and the Saracens, he says, “Gentem crudelem cujus detestanda germina terrę latitudinem occupasse dolemus.”

[32] So Joachim, L. 116/2

[33] I add this from Joachim’s general sketch of the Seals (see p. 187 suprą), though here omitted; because it is referred to in the next Seal, and was therefore omitted by oversight.

[34] L. 117/2

[35] “Quieumque Petre ecclesiam moribus viribusque impugnant, Babylonis se filios contremiscant.” 117/2

[36] On Apoc.xvii. Joachim more fully explains himself about Babylon, and the Beast, and the kings that loved the harlot; the latter including wicked anti-papal prelates, as well as princes. Babylon, it must always be remembered, is supposed by Joachim to mean the Western Roman Empire; and so to include what he calls Jerusalem, i.e. the true Romish Church, within it. But see the Comment on that Chapter.

[37] 118.

[38] See again the Comment on Apoc. xvii.

[39] 120/2

[40] “Omnes angeli in hoc loco omnes illi electi homines intelligendi sunt; qui, etsi non sint enumerati inter quinque ordines qui specialius pertinent ad civitatem, pertinent tamen ad suburbana et vicos.” L. 121/2

[41] “Non quidem post finem seculi, cum cessabit servitus et nox deloris; sed in omni tempore isto quo perseverat edificium templi, et ignis purgatorius aliquantos affligit.” 122/2.

[42] L. 123.

[43] “Notandum quod non corruerunt muri Jerico, nisi in septimo, vei post septimun circuitum, et quasi in consummatione diei. Completis septem temporibus ab incarnatione Domini, cłm ruiną Antichristi ruet pręsena mundus . . Etenim septem illa tempore sub sectą continentur ętate.” L. 124.

[44] Christ is the one mediator between God and man, says Joachim distinctly; just as says the Scriptures. But not, he presently adds, the only intercessor. Else “decipitur (quod absit) et errat universa ecclesia; quę quotidie sanctorum suffragia confidenter expostulat.” (!) 124/2

[45] Facta est grando duritę, mixta cum igne zeli, et cruore odii, et missa est in cor Synagogę, semper terrena quęrens.” 127/2.

[46] 129/1

[47] Such, the reader may remember, is in part my own explanation of the vision. It is interesting to find it suggested so early. But, so viewing it, how could Joachim place the Saracens, as he does, not after, the woe-denouncing angel?

[48] 130/2. So A.D. 1179, in the third year of the Lateran Council: “Hęreticorum quos alii Catharos, alii Patarinos, alii Publicanos vocant.“ Also, in A.D. 1183, Pope Lucius III.; “Imprimis Catharos, et Patarinos, et eos qui se Humiliatos, vel Pauperes de Lugduno, falso nomine mentiuntur:” Hard, vi. ii. 1683, 1878. and again the Letter of Innocent III, A.D. 1199, which has been referred to by me Vol. ii. pp. 354, 425: “Quosdam qui Valdenses, Cathari, et Paterini dicuntur.“

[49] “Omnia corpora,” 130/2; “omnem carnem,” 133.

[50] 132/2

[51] 131. - “Verbis verisimilibus:” “Hęc quasi rationabiliter concinantes. 131, 132.

[52] “Justitią pręditos.” 131. Compare what I have said of the heretics examined at the Council of Arras, early in the 11th century, in my Vol. ii. p. 276.

[53] “Nocturno, ut fertur, tempore.” 130/2

[54] “Diu est ex quo confuta fuit seeta illa: licet nesciamus ą quo fuerit inchoata vei aucta.” 131/2. Hence the 5 months, or 150 years, assigned to the locusts figuring them. Compare my remarks on this point Vol. ii. pp. 357, 381-384.

[55] Compare what is said in my Vol. ii. p. 398, of the twofold division of the Waldenses into the Perfecti, and the general body of the disciples: also ib. 287, of the division of the heretics examined at Cologne in 1147, into the general body, called believers, and those especially set apart, called the elect.

[56] 131

[57] “Utuntur auctoritatibus Scripturarum; immo non utuntur, sed abutuntur.” 132/2

[58] “Qui pauper venit ad illos protinus, inquiunt, efficitur divers.” 131. Compare what is stated in my Vol. ii. pp. 272-399, &c.

[59] p. 131.

[60] “Ut, quasi equi preparati ad pręlium, nihil vereant adversi: despicientes penitłs vitam temporalem, ac si per supplicia adepturi eternam.” 132. See my Vol. ii. pp. 311-313.

[61] “Nam et martyres Dei nominant suos, qui forte (!) a Catholicis concremati sunt igne; existimantes illos principes scetę suę, glorią et honore coronatos in coelis.” 132. “Ut. . vei occisi (sicut asserunt) coronentur martyrio.” 131/2

[62] “Clericum fuisse . . apparet.” 130/2

[63] 131. Compare Sergius’ remark in my Vol. ii. 257.

[64] 131/2

[65] Collectas bonorum suorum.” 131. A statement deserving observation; as not, I think, noted elsewhere about the Sect.

[66] 131.

[67] “Solet aliquando dies des gnare annum.” 131/2. The reader will mark this application of the year-day principle by Joachim Abbas. Another similar one will be found at p. 193 infrą: also p. 196. See my Vol. iii. p. 282.

[68] I have already noted this on the preceding page.

[69] “Nempe et Apostolicum cui omnes obediunt so fatentur habere; de quo in pręsenti loco subsequenter adjungitur:” (L. 133:) i.e. in the next verse about Abaddon. - Compare what I have said of the Pope of the Paulikians, Vol. ii. p. 289.

[70] Mark here another instance of the mistake about the Roman Empire, as if still unbroken and undivided, on which I have observed. pp. 183, 184 supra.

[71] 133.

[72] 134.

[73] 133/2

[74] 134.

[75] Or Meselmuti: 134/2.

[76] 131/2

[77] Ibid.

[78] On this there occurs a curious applicatory passage in Joachim. “Sed forte dicit aliquis, Numquid ego dęmones et simulaera colo.ut timeam super hoe judicium Dei? Ego non dęmonia sed Deum colo. Idola enim muta et surda intoto poene orbe contrita sunt.” Yes, but, says Joachim, covetousness is idolatry. (136/2.) - Did the thought never occur to him of the saints’ images, (“surda et muta” as the heathen idols,) and their worship; a worship enjoined under pain of anathema by the 2nd Nicene Council?

[79] Joachim says, Enoch or Elias, but prefers Enoch: Elias being one of the witnesses according to him; Enoch no so 137.

[80] “Quid in pedibus ejus, aui erant quasi columna ignis, nisi sensum concordię duorum Testamentorum?” 137/2, 138. This, concurrently with what he says of the Angel being a great preacher, descending from the contemplative to the active life, makes me think that Joachim regarded himself as mainly the Angel intended: one grand point of his views being the concord of the Old and New Testament; as stated p. 187 suprą.

[81] “In fine mundi, vei circą ipsum finem, has(?)res didicimus affurturas: - Helyam Tesbyten venturum, fidem Judęcorum, Antichristum persecuturum, Christum judicaturum, mortuorum resurrectionem, bonorum malorumque discretionem, mundi conflagrationem, ejusdemque renovationem. Quę omnia quidem ventura case eredendum est; sed quibus modis, et quo ordine veniant, magis tune docebit rerum experientia, quąm nume ad pefectum hominum intelligentia valet.” Quoted too in Joachim, L. 140.

[82] L. 140.

[83] 130/2

[84] 141/2, 142. “Monachis designatis in Joanne.” So too in Joachim’s Introductory Book, 17/2, &c.

[85] De hāc serotinā prędicatione, quam facturus est ordo ille quem disignat Joannes, consummato jam pene illo ordine quem significat Petrus, &c.” 142/2

[86] Ibid.

[87] Ibid. Compare what I have observed on Lateinos, as the name and number of the Beast, Vol. iii. pp. 252, 253.

[88] 142/2.

[89] On the capture of Constantinople, and overthrow of the Greek Empire by the Turks, whom Joachim and others regarded as very much identified with the Saracens, this exposition of Joachim’s might naturally be recalled to mind, as if then having its fulfillment.

[90] Compare again the Concord of the Old and New Testament; as noted by me p187, Note 5 suprą., from Joachim’s Introductory Book.

[91] At L. 143, 145, Joachim distinguishes between the being given to the Gentiles, so as was the Greek Church, and the trodden down, which was to be the punishment of the Latin; the latter being still, “in respect of faith, a virgin.”

[92] Under the 11th king, says Joachim, (L. 145/1,) or as a contemporary with him, I think, there is to rise also the king of fierce countenance told of in (Dan. viii. 23, “And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.”):- the two combining in persecuting the Church, as did Pilate and Herod: the one, like Pilate, a Gentile chief; the other, like Herod, a heretic.

At L 143 Joachim draws out a curious analogy between the Jews, Greeks, and Latins, on the one hand, and on the other Mary Magdalene, John, and Peter, successively visiting Christ’s sepulcher: - Mary Magdalene first approaching it, while yet dark, (so as the Jews are in the dark,) and reporting to John and Peter: John, who was to become episcopal head of the Greek metropolitan city, Ephesus, next approaching it, but not entering in; until after Peter, the future Bishop and head of the Latin Church, had first entered. So, ultimately, the Greeks are to be recovered from their schism and heresy; and to join the Latin or true Church of Christ and Peter. L. 143-145.

[93] Whose death is not recorded, adds Joachim, like other deaths; it being said that none knows his sepulcher.

[94] So, respecting Jerome, at my pp.155, 156 suprą.

[95] Joachim mentions another thing stated by Jerome, as both his own and an earlier patristic notion respecting Enoch and Elias; viz. that in their not dying these two were typical of those that at the consummation are not to die, but only to be changed at Christ’s coming. But how could they be such a type, argues Joachim, if they have yet personally to conflict with Antichrist, and die in the conflict? L. 148, 148/2. Hence the probability that, if these two were meant in the Apocalypse, it was only in a figurative sense.

[96] “Moses fuit vir Levita, et pastor populi Israel; Helyas vir solitarius non habens filios aut uxorcm. Ille ergo significat ordinem clericorum; iste ordinem monachorum.” 148/2

[97] L. 147/2

[98] “Quadraginta duo menes, quibus prędicant induti saccis significant totidem generationes; quibus (et verbis et exemplis) clamant dicentes, Penitentiam agite; appropinquavit enim regnum coelorum.” 148/2

[99] Viz. on the five months of the scorpion locusts. See p.191 suprą.

Hence no doubt, in part, and from Joachim’s notice about the two generations from A.D. 1200, noted pp.188, Note 1561, the Benedictine Editor of Bernard draws his inference; “Abbas Joachim existimabat Antichristum intra sexaginta annos ą suo tempore ad futurum. Vixit autem circą annum 1200.” (Vol. i. p. 846. Paris 1839.) Bedides that elsewhere, viz. in his Lib Concord. ii. 16, and v. 118, Joachim writes, ‘Accepto haud dubič die pro anno. et 1260 diebus pro totidem annis.” So Brit. Mag. xvi. 370, 371, referred to by Todd and Harrison, Warb. Lect. 432. I have not observed any more direct expression of opinion to that effect elsewhere in Joachim’s Apocalyptic Commentary.

[100] L. 148/2

[101] L. 149.

[102] Ibid.

[103] L. 149/2. See Joachim on Apoc. ix., p.192 suprą.

[104] “Cicą finem regni sui factura est praelium contrą sanctos.” 150.

[105] “Priecunitibus cos (santos) duebus viris qui sint duces corum.” ibid.

[106] “Prius dabit operam resistentem sibi diutius percutere Babylonem; et postea eriget contrą Deum cornu contumacę suę.” ibid.

[107] Ibid. - (Jer. xxii. 8, “And many nations shall pass by this city, and they shall say every man to his neighbour, Wherefore hath the LORD done thus unto this great city?”), was either overlooked by Joachim, or considered inapplicable. And, if the latter, not without reason. See my Vol. ii. p. 435. It is never to be forgotten on this point that the Apocalypse has itself most expressly defined “the city the great one” in it to mean the seven-hilled Rome: and to suppose any other quite different city to be also intended in it by that self-same appellative is to suppose its writer a patron of Babylonian confusion.

[108] 150, 150/2. Joachim thus observes on the adverb where; (“where also their Lord was crucified;”) “Hoe adverbium ubi plerumque in divinā paginā non tam loci situm, quąm aut populum qui aliquando fuit in loco. aut populi ejusdem similitudinem signat.” 150/2

[109] Ibid.

[110] 148. About the False Prophet see p.197 infrą.

[111] 152.

[112] “Ad Antichristum et socies ejus referendum est; quod, sicut, pręter solitum corrupturi sunt terram, ita pręter solitum exterminabuntur de terrą.“ He compares this, and makes it parallel, with Zechariah’s prophecy: “I will gather all nations; and I will pour out my spirit on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and supplication; . . and I will take away the false prophet from the land.“ 153.

[113] “Ad tempus illud referendum est in quo Bestia et Pseudo-propheta mittentur in stagnum iguis ardens sulphure; et ad tertium statum mundi, qui erit in sabbatum et quietem: in quo, exterminatis prius corruptoribus terrę, regnaturus est populus sanetorum Altissimi; quousque induti novis corporibus, et paeto judicio generali, ascendent simul cum Domino suo ad paratum sibi regnum ab origine mundi.” 152/2.

[114] “Puto autem quod mox, ubi completa fuerit passio sanctorum, incipiet septimus Angelus exaltare vocem suam; ostendens jam omnino consummata esse mysteria regni Dei: apparentibus signis in sole et luną et stellis (Luke xxi.); . . . nempe et quod dictum est in hoc loco, ‘Et tempus mortuorum,’ in septimą parte hujus libri scriptum; ‘Vidi sedes, et sederunt super eas, . . et reguaverunt cum Christo’” 152/2

[115] Ibid.

[116] L. 154, 154/2, 155.

[117] “Septem capita septem sunt nomina tyrannorum aui sibi persequendo ecclesiam per tempora successerunt.” Who the kings meant “in summą hugus libri sufficienter digessimus.” 156/2.

Joachim thus distinguishes the Dragon’s seven heads from the Beast’s: - “Capita Draconis reges, non populi, intelligendi sunt; capita vero Bestię populi, non reges.” ibid.

[118] Joachim notes the fact of the diadems being distinctively on the ten horns in the Beast’s case. ibid.

[119] See p. 190 suprą.

[120] 157.

[121] 158/2 The same mystical sense Joachim (ibid.) makes to attach to Michael in Dan. xii. 1, “And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.”.

[122] L. 160. The reader will do well to mark Joachim’s adoption of Constantine’s own historical explanation of this part of the vision. So, very much, Eusebius, as we saw p. 152 supra; Andreas, p. 175, 176, and Anselm, p. 186.

[123] 160/2 Still I conceive Joachim is on the right track.

[124] 161, 161/2.

[125] 162.

[126] 162/2, 163. - One might be curious to know how Joachim satisfied himself in not applying Daniel’s four Beasts, (signifying as they did the world’s four great empires,) the inspired explanation of the parallel four parts of the symbolic image, previously exhibited: as these were also to signify the four great empires, destined to rule successively till the consummation. - Joachim’s solution is quite original.

[127] “Alas indeed!’ adds Joachim, “if Antichrist, when he appears, shall do as much evil as this Mahomet, his precursor and preparer!” 163/2.

[128] So he reserves his explanation of them to the 6th part of this Treatise, on Apoc. xvii. L. 164.

[129] 164/2, 164/2. - On his Arian tetra-kephalous Beast’s wounding to death, Joachim twice specifies three chief Arian powers subdued thus: “Gothi et Vandali et Longobardi et alii Ariani heretici partim deleti sunt ab exercitu Romano, partim ad Catholicam fidem conversi.” 163/2, 164/2. With which compare my notice of the three horns plucked up by the Papal Antichrist, in my Vol. iii. p. 167.

[130] He tells of signs and prodigies accompanying. “Anno etenim 1095 (ut fertur) incarnationis Dominicę, signum in aere satis apparuit admirandum; - stellas sciliect innumeras circumque discurrere, et velut in modum avium acreas semitas pervagari.“ Quo pręcedente signo, ad exhortationem Urbani Popę, &c.” In my Edition it is printed 1015, plainly by mistake.

[131] 165.

[132] Ib. Compare the report of what Joachim said to the king Richard on this point, as given p. 202 infrą, from Roger de Hoveden. The address to Richard was in the year 1190: the Apocalyptic comment transmitted to us, with Joachim’s last corrections, was sent forth not till after the year 1195, (see my p.191), or perhaps 1200, (see p. 187,) after the failure in main results of the English and French’s king’s expeditions.

[133] Ibid.

[134] 165/2. “Qualiter anni isti ad totius Bestię universitatem pertineant in opere Concordię dictum est.“ “Accepto haud dubič die pre anno, et 1260 diebus pretotidem annis.“ So Joachim’s Liber Concordię, 2. c. 16, and 5. c. 118: a passage cited by Dr. Todd on Antichrist, p. 458, from a Paper in the British Magazine; and here expressly referred to by Joachim. I have already at p. 194 noted this.

[135] 165/2

[136] 166/2, 167.

[137] 166/2, 167/2.

[138] 167/2.

[139] “Pathareni, hęreticorum fex, mundi potestatibus so tuctur.” 167/2. So Joachim writing near the year 1200 A.D. It will interest the reader, I think, to compare my historical notices, Vol. ii. pp. 357, 403.

[140] Or Rome’s reprobates. See Joachim’s explanation on Apoc. xvii. pp. 198, 199 infrą

[141] “Tempore quo rex ille undecimus et ultimus in regno Saracenorum regnaturus est.” 167/2.

[142] 167/2 Joachim suggests the resemblance of this second Apocalyptic Beast to the earth-born goat’s little horn in Dan. viii.; where as the first Apocalyptic Beast is to be resembled to the little horn of the sea-originating fourth Beast in Dan. vii.

[143] I must give the original of this remarkable passage, 168. “Sei verisimile videtur quņd, sicut Bestia illa quę ascendet de mari habitura est quendam magnum regem de sectā suā, qui sit similis Neronis, et quasi impertor totius orbis, ita Bestia quę ascendet de terrā habitura sit quendam magnum Prelatum, qui sit similis Symonis Magi, et quasi Universalis Pontifex in tote orbe terrarum; et ipse sit ille Antichristus de quo dicit Paulus, Quod extollitur, etc.” - So Bernard thought the Antichrist might be an Anti-Pope; and Theodoret, much earlier, said that the Antichrist en th ekklhsia arpasei thn proedreian. See my Vol. i. p. 394; iii. p. 99.

[144] 168

[145] “Aliqua specialis traditio, quam component pseud-prophetę in memoriam ipsius Bestię; dicentes hoc esse regnum illud quod mansurum est in eternum.” ibid. So too 168/2; “image significat nephandissimam traditionem ipsius.”

[146] At 183/2, on the clause on Apoc. sv., “I saw the conquerors over the Beast’s image,” Joachim thus varies the explanation: “In imagine doctrina Bestę designatur.”

[147] “Quid per characterem, nisi aliquod scriptum, vei edictum, preceptorum ipsius.” 168/2.

[148] Some Latin codices for “numerum hominis,” read “numerum nominis,” Joachim tells us. 169.

[149] Ibid.

[150] So on Apoc. vii. See pp. 189, 190 suprą. The Beast here meant, of the Church’s 4th period, he defines as the Saracenic Beast previous to the healing of the deadly wound; and so under his last head but one. 170.

[151] 173. See p. 190 suprą

[152] See p. 198 suprą

[153] See Joachim’s Scheme of the Seals, pp. 187, 188 suprą.

[154] Joachim must have remembered that the Witnesses are to be slain in the street of the great city Babylon. How then, it may be asked, prophesy against the Beast after Babylon’s destruction? - But in that verse about the Witnesses he inconsistently explains the great city as the empire of that world.

[155] 173/2

[156] “Adjunctum est de requie sabbati: quod uimirum,ut sextą die passus est Dominus, sabbuto autem requievit ą laboribus suis, ita in sexto tempore (ut sępe jam dictum est) complebitur passio corporis Christi: et erit post hoc sabbatum glriosum: seu in illis qui jam reguabunt cum Christo; seu in his qui, Antichristo ruente, remanebunt super terram, mansuri in hąc vitą pro velle Dei, quousque compleatur illud tempus quod vocatum est novissimus dies. In quo novissimo die, consummatia universis mysteriis et laboribus sauctorum, quid jam nisi messis et vendemia restat?“ 175.

The above is important as bearing on Jaochim’s millennial views. Compare the Note 1654 p. 195; also p. 188 supra.

[157] It is to be observed with reference to these angels, that Joachim, like Andreas and others before him, had in his Latin Version the curious reading, “vestiti Lapide mundo;” agreeably with the Greek reading liqon instead of linon, in (Apoc. xv. 6, “And the seven angels came out of the temple, having the seven plagues, clothed in pure and white linen, and having their breasts girded with golden girdles.”); and which like them he explains of Christ, the rock: (so L. 184/2:) also that he explained the oi nekwntev, in (xv. 2, “And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and them that had gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his mark, and over the number of his name, stand on the sea of glass, having the harps of God.”), of those that received no other doctrine than that of the Roman Church, and who were thus triumphant over the Beast. (L. 183.)

[158] A long and obscure disquisition precedes Joachim’s comment on the vials, with reference to the reasons and objects of God’s outpouring of his jealousy. So from 177 to 182. It springs not from hatred on his part against those who suffer from them; but from desire of, and with a view to, their conversions. 186/2

[159] 189/2

[160] Joachim in his explanation refers this 6th vial specially to the mundani, or Christian professing men of the world without the inner sanctuary of the Church: “quatenus inchoato tempore sexto, sentiant saltem exterius plagam, quam intus, pro consuetą cęcitate, gravioris plagę vulnera sentire non possunt.” - The descriptive phrase from the East, or sun-rising, Joachim distinctly explains as to be taken literally. 190/2. The subject is referred to again in his Comment on Apoc. xvii. 16, “The ten horns shall hate her.” &c. see L. 199/2

[161] “In aere spiritualis illa ecclesia designatur, quę relinquetur velut r(?)unda seges; excisis de terrą tribulis, et cunctis reliquiis Babylonia.” 192/2.

[162] Joachim notes at the outset both the importance and plainness of the vision. “Qui nescit quod passura sit meretrix pro erroribus suis, de facili decipitur nutibus oculorum suorum.” 194.

[163] Ibid.

[164] Ibid.

[165] “Bestia significat universas gentes infideles quę aliquando subjectę fuerunt Romano imperio, et persecutę sunt Christum, et ecclesiam ejus.” 196.

[166] 196/2, 197.

[167] One of the seven, says Joachim, as uniting all the errors of the seven. 196/2.

[168] Probably, says Joachim, “sub nomine sexti regis alius surgere intelligatur post alium: [qu. illum?] quatenus post illum de quo dicit Joachim’s Unus est;” (197:) i.e. Saladin. It is rather difficult to understand Joachim’s meaning. Probably Joachim was puzzled by his mistaken reading of “post beastiam;” referred to in my next Note.

[169] post Bestiam.” - So Joachim reads. An evident mistake in the Latin translation; as the Greek is not meta to qhrion, bit meta ton qhriou.

[170] Referring to 1 Peter v. 13; “The Church which is in Babylon;” meaning, it was understood, Rome. 198.

[171] “In hoc verbo [‘the Church which is in Babylon’] consolatio non modica fact, est populo qui vocatur Romanus; quandoquidem in ipeą urbe quę vocatur Babylon peregrinatur civitas Jerusalem.” 198.

A writer in the British Magazine for 1839 strongly marks this distinction in Joachim. Joachim’s plan, says he, was the ultra-Guelfic plan of regenerating society by means of the Pope, as Peter’s successor, and the monastic orders; with supersession of all the Church -meddling power of Roman or German emperors, (the Apocalyptic Babylon,) and of the secular clergy, who “fornicated with” or favored it. - The result was to be, adds this writer, “that Babylon, with the aid of many clerici, men of the expiring [2nd] status, was to lay waste the courts of Jerusalem; yet she herself perish by the hands of the Bestia Patarena and of Antichrist; and every remnant of the Clerici, or Church secular, perish likewise: but a remnant of the eremitie order to survive all tribulation, and reign with the Holy Ghost in the 3rd status.” Todd. p. 455. In the expression Bestia Patharena, and its identification with Antichrist, the writer seems to me incorrect. See on Apoc. xvii.

The writer in the B. M. further observes that Joachim and the Joachites spoke of an Antichristian mixtus, or mysteus, Reipublicę, in contradistinction to the Antichristus verus. The former he supposes to be not one Antichrist or Pseudo-propheta, but many: one already born, and which “was destined to subvert the Babylonian empire, put forth ten horns, afflict the Church during 56 1/2 years of the two generations of the period of transition: [or time of the end:] then at last, “reguantibus decem regibus illis, singulis in suis locis,” to put forth its horn of blasphemy, being the xith king, and Antichristus verus, of 3 1/2 years. Todd 461. The writer refers to a Commentary of Joachim on Jeremiah, as well as that on the Apocalypse. The former, which I have seen, supplies what is wanting in the Apocalyptic Comment to the completeness of this view. The writer adds, however; “Whether the ten-horned empire was the Bestia itself, still future, or a future form and predicament of a Beast which had long existed, is a point on which the Abbot of Flore does not express himself with perfect consistency.” Ibid.

[172] 198. - Joachim here speaks of some that rested on Benedict’s words, quoted by Pope Gregory I: “Rome shall not perish by the assaults of kings: but by earthquakes, &c.” This however, says he, had reference to the Gothic kings then attacking Rome.

[173] 197/2 He refers to the 6th Vial.

[174] He exemplifies in those who refused to impart the divine sacraments entrusted to them “pro salute vivorum et mortuorum,” “nisi aut accipiant aliquid, aut accipere sperent.” 201. Also in these who “inhiant temporalibus lucris,” and seek the favor of the rich; (199;) and altogether resemble Judas, who for thirty pieces of silver betrayed Christ. 201/2. Compare (Apoc. ix. 20, “And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk:”); and my historic illustrations of it, in reference to the time when Joachim wrote, Vol. ii. pp. 17-20.

[175] 203, 203/2

[176] 203/2.

[177] 204.

[178] 205.

[179] This second tribulation of the 6th period is to follow, he says, “post gaudium illud tam solemne, quod post hebdomadam quę intitulatur de passione:” i.e. after the Easter sabbath, succeeding the Church’s Passion Week. 206. Compare Luther’s somewhat similar use of the figure, as cited in my Vol. ii. p. 136.

[180] 207

[181] Ibid.

[182] Ibid.

[183] “Unum č duobus arbitror esse tenendum: - quņd aut mortui qui sunt in Christo cum eo protinus apparebunt viventes, secundum supra-scriptam Apostoli auctoritatem; (1 Thess. iv. 15-17, “ For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep. 16: For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: 17: Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.”;) aut illi apparebunt suscitati cum ipso, qui cum co pariter resurrexerunt ą mortus:” viz. as in (Matt. xxvii. 52, “And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose,”) referred to just before. P. 207/2. - The first view is the pre-millennial theory.

[184] For saints in the mortal state may conquer even in suffering: “qui, sequentes passionem Domini sui, ita pugnaturi sunt in corporibus suis tradendis pro nomine Crucifixi in tempore sexto, quomodo ipse in die sexto in candide illo eque suc superavit et vicit.” Ibid.

What is said of the heaven appearing opened, in order to the exhibition of the vision, may be meant, he adds, of the opening of Scripture truth at the time; so that all that the vision relates to may appear clear. 208.

[185] 208, 208/2.

[186] 209/2, 210.

[187] “Maximč cłm jam sint traneacti amplius quąm mille anni, ex quo dixit beatus Joannes, Filioli novissima hora est.” 210.

A sentence which cannot but suggest the opening of the Waldensian Noble Lesson; “Well have 1100 years been completed since it was said, it is the last time.” See my Vol. ii. pp. 365, 390.

I have already observed, at p. 188 Note 1561 suprą, that between this second and third status Joachim supposed a transition interval (common in some sort to both states) of two Apocalyptic months or generations, = 60 years; viz. from A.D. 1200 to A.D. 1260. This was to be an ęra of great tribulation to the Church; and more expecially the 3 1/2 years at its conclusion.

[188] 210. - Let me here again remark how, immediately that the Christian ęra had so far advanced as to allow of the year-day principle being applied to the 1260 days’ prophetic period, without placing Christ’s second advent necessarily at a distance, it was so applied. Compare again Note 1561, p. 188

[189] 211.

[190] “Secundłm aliquam sui partem incareeratus fuerit Draco ex co tempore quo superavit cum Christus in die mortis suę; secundłm vere universitatem capitrum suorum, ex eą die, vei horą, quą Bestia et Pseudo-propheta mittentur in stagnum ignis.” And again: “Secundłm partem incepit ab illo sabbate quo requievit Dominus in sepuchro: secundum plenitudinem sui, a ruiną Bestiae et Pseudo-Prophetę 211.

[191] “Tune crit magna pax. . cujus terminus erit in arbitrio Dei.” 210/2. “Quis scit quąm breve esse poterit sabbatum ipsum?” ibid.

[192] “Ista tria pręlia” (viz. that of the ten kings destroying Babylon, or Rome, that of the Beast against the Lamb, and that of Gog, the two first pre-sabbatical, the last post-sabbatic) “tam fortassis erunt vicina, ut ille Homo Peccati possit omnibus interesse; maxime autem in secundo et tertio.“ At the last, I presume, in his resurrection state, after the healing of his deadly wound. 210/2, 211.

[193] L. 212.

[194] L. 212/2.

[195] “Forte intelligamus sanctos protinus post resurrectionem suam absque terribilis illius judicii examine, et absque intervallo dierum, intraturos ad veram vitam; cęteros vero nou statim, sed post consummationem judicii.” Ibid. Compare Joachim on Apoc. xix. 14, pp. 200, 201 suprą.

[196] 213.

[197] 215/2.

[198] “Non est referenda visio, et iste desecensus, ad horam illam ultimam in quą manifesta erit gloria Hierusalem; sed ad tempus nativitatis ipsius (Christi).” Ibid.

[199] Let me quote from Fleury a brief obituary sentence on this remarkable, and I trust sincere, though on may points deluded man. “Ver ee tems lą mourut in Calabrie l’Abbé Joachim, fameux par ses propheties. Il avait environ 72 ans quand il tomba malade a Pietrafitta, prés de Coscuze; et mourut au milieu de trois Abbez et de plusieurs moines: a qu’il recommanda de s’aimer les uns les autres, comme Jesus Christ nous a simiz; ce qu’il repeta plusieurs fois. Il mourut le trentieme jour de Mars 1202; et son corps fut porté en son Abbaye a Flore.” Fleury H. E. Liv. lxxv. chap. 41.

[200] The interpretation of this vision according to Joachim, Abbot of Curacio, is as follows: - The woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, signifies the Holy Church covered and clothed with the Sun of Righteousness, which is Christ our God: under whose feet the world, with its vices and lusts, is ever to be trampled. “And upon her head a crown of twelve stars.“ C+hrist is the head of the Church: her crown is the Catholic faith which was preached by the twelve apostles. “And bringing forth, she was in pain to be delivered.” Thus the Holy Church, which is continually blest with new offspring, is in pain from day to day, that it may bring forth souls to God; whom Satan endeavors to snatch away, and draw down with himself to hell. “And behold a great red Dragon, having seven heads and ten horns.” That Dragon signifies the Devil: who is well said to have seven heads; for every wicked one is a head of the Devil: who is well said to have seven heads; for every wicked one is a head of the Devil. He puts seven as the finite for the infinite, for the heads of the Devil are infinite, nevertheless this Joachim in his exposition specified seven persecuting powers; whose names are Herod, Nero, Constantius, Mahomet, Melsemut, Saladin, Antichrist. St. John also says in the Apocalypse; “These are seven kings; five have fallen, and one is, and one is not yet come:” which the same Joachim thus explains: There are seven kings, namely, Herod, Nero, Constantius, Mahomet, Melsemut, Saladin, Antichrist. Of these, five have fallen; namely, Herod, Nero, Constantius, Mahomet, Melsemut: and one is: namely Saladin; who at this time appresses the Church of God, and keeps possession of it with the sepulchre of our Lord, and the holy city Jerusalem, and the land in which the feet of our Lord stood. But he shall in a short time lose it.

Then the king of England asked, “When shall this be?” To whom Joachim answered, “When seven years shall have elapsed from the day of the taking of Jerusalem.” “Then,” said the king of England, “Why have we come here so soon?” To whom Joachim replied, “Your coming is very necessary; because the Lord will give you victory over his enemies, and will exalt your name above all the princes of the earth.”

It follows: “One of them is not yet come;” namely, Antichrist. Concerning this Antichrist the same Joachim says that he is already born in the city of Rome, and will be elevated to the Apostolic see. And concerning this Antichrist the Apostle says: “He is exalted and placed in opposition, above all that is called God:” and “then shall be revealed that wicked one, whom the Lord Jesus will slay with the breath of his mouth, and destroy with the brightness of his coming.”

And the king turning to him said: “I thought that Antichrist would be born in Antioch, or in Babylon, of the tribe of Dan; and would reign in the temple of the Lord, which is in Jerusalem; and would walk in that land in which Christ walked; and would reign in it for three years and a half: and would dispute against Elijah and Enoch, and would kill them; and would afterwards die; and that, after his death, God would give sixty days of repentance, in which those might repent who should have erred from the way of the truth, and have been seduced by the preaching of Antichrist and his false prophets.”

It follows; “and ten horns.” - The ten horns of the Devil are heresies and schisms; which heretics, and schematics set up in opposition to the ten commandments of the law, and the precepts of God. “And unto his head seven crowns.” By crowns are signified kings, and princes of this world, who will believe on Antichrist. “And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven:” because of the great multitude of men believing on him. “And cast them upon the earth.” - He calls the inferior persons who shall believe on Antichrist stars; and says, “the third part of the stars of heaven,” because of the great multitude of men believing on him. “And cast them unto the earth:” - that is, he casts all into hell, who shall continue to believe on him. “Which stood before the woman who was about to bring forth; and when she had brought forth, he might devour her son.” The Devil is always practicing against the Church; that he may seize her offspring, and devour what he has seized: and he is properly said to “stand;” because he never declines from his wickedness, but always stands stiff in malice, and inflexible in the craft of his fraud. Or, in another sense, his tail signifies the end of this world: in which certain wicked nations shall arise who are called God-Magog; and shall destroy the Church of God. and subvert the Christian race. And after that shall be the day of judgment. And in the time of the Antichrist many Christians abiding in caverns of the earth, and in the solitude of the rocks, shall keep the Christian faith in the fear of the Lord, even until the destruction of Antichrist. And this is what he means when he says, “The woman fled unto the wilderness of Egypt, where she had a place prepared by God, that they should there feed her 1260 days. But “her man-child, who should rule all nations with a rod of iron,” is especially our Lord Jesus Christ: who, after his passion and resurrection, ascended into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty, and shall come again to judge the quick and the dead, and the world by fire. Whose followers if we are, and persevere in the way of his commandments, we shall be caught up to meet him in the air, and shall be with him for ever.

And although the said Abbot of Curacio maintained this opinion concerning the coming of Antichrist, nevertheless Walter , archbishop of Rouen, and Girard, archbishop of Auxerre, and John of Worms, and Barnard, bishop of Babyonne, and other ecclesiastics well versed in the Scripture, endeavored to prove the contrary: and, although many plausible arguments were adduced on each side, the matter still remains undecided. Maitland’s Translation, Letter to Digby, p. 70.

[201] See Note 1551 p. 186, and Note 1561 p. 188..

Ere closing this notice of Joachim, let me recall to my readers’ recollection his contemporary Pope Innocent III’s interpretation of the Apocalyptic number 666, as signifying the time of the duration of Mahommedism; an interpretation given by him A.D.1214 to the 4th Council of Lateran, and which I have referred to in my Vol. iii. p. 257, on the Number of the Beast. It is as follows.

“Post tempora Gregorii perditionis filius Machomettus pseudopropheta surrexit: cujus perfidin etsi usque ad hęe tempora invaluerit, contidamus tamen in Domino qui jam fecit nobiscum signum in bouum, quņd finis hujus bestię appropinquat: Cujus numerus,’ secundum Apocalypsim, ‘intrą sexcenta sexaginta sex clauditur:’ ex quibus jam pęue sexcenti sunt anni completi.” Hard. vii. 3.

And so too, as we saw ibid, Roger Bacon, referred to by Mr. Foster in his Mahommedanism Unveiled, 232. The agreement of this view of the coming future, chronologically, with that of Joachim will be evident; and, no doubt, helped it on to a more general reception and belief.

[202] See p. 171 suprą

[203] Hyacinthus de Ferrari O. P. S. Theologię Magistri, Bibliothecę Casanat. Pręfecti.

[204] This is the title of the first of Two Treaties of Thomas Aquinas; that of the second being De Pręambulis ad Judicium. They are connected Treatises; and were published at Rome, with the usual license, in 1810. They contain each of them about 130 octavo pages. The first Treatise is the one referred to in my Notes and Numerals, except where the Numeral ii. is inserted.

[205] T. Aquinas, in a rather remarkable manner, tries here to overcome the difficulty arising from the fact of the nations, once subjected to Roman rule, having separated from, and broken up the old Roman empire; yet Antichrist, as he would have it, not even then come. So, similarly, in his comment on 2 Thess. ii.: - “Sed quomodo est hoc? Quia jamdiu gentes recesserunt a Romano imperio, et tamen needum venit Antichristus. Diceudum est quod nondum cessavit; sed est commutatum de temporali in spirituale, ut dicit Leo Papa in sermone de Apostolis. Et idcirco dicendum est, quņd discession a Romano imperio debet intelligi, non solum a temporali, sed a spirituali; seilicet a fide Catholicą Romanę ecclesię.” (I quote from the Venice edition of T. Aquinas’ Works, 1775.)

Let me add another extract from this Comment; one respecting the mystery of iniquity, and its working at the time even when St. Paul wrote. T. Aquinas says; “Figuraliter occultatum operatur in fictis qui videntur boni, et tumen sunt mali; et hi operantur officium Antichrist.” Pretty nearly a correct view I conceive. On the temple of Antichrist’s enthronization, spoken of by St. Paul, he offers the three ancient explanations of the Jewish temple restored; the Church; (to which latter he seems to incline;) or eiv naon taken in the sense “as a temple.”

[206] See my Vol. ii. p. 439.

[207] See the Note 1498 p. 180 suprą.

[208] In Matt. xi.

[209] See pp. 175, 176 suprą.

[210] “Doctrinam habebat similem doctrinę Agni, id est Christi, et miraculorum Agni similitudinem: sed veritatem cornuum Diaboli; scilieet doctrinam fętentem, et virtutem miraculorum phantasticam. Et inde aperitur falsitas Bestię, id est Antichristi; quia apostoli ejus simulabunt se bonos, et tamen mala suadebunt.” i 97. So a Gloss from Gregory I., cited p. 96 by the Editor: “Cornua (sc. agni), quia simulabunt se habere innocentiam, et puram vitam, et veram doctrinam, et miracula quę Christus habuit, et suis dedit.” - The reader should mark the long chain of opinion on this point of the religious hypocrisy of Antichrist, as a Christian professor.

[211] See pp. 167, 168 suprą.

[212] See pp. 187, 188, 189, 199 suprą

[213] See pp. 196. 197.

[214] See pp. 173, 176, 177 suprą.

[215] “Quem (sc. Bestiam Antichristum, Apoc. xiii.) quidam hęreticorum jam sequentes dicunt omnes confessores qui fuerunt in ecclesią ą tempore Silvestri Papę esse damnatos, et in inferuo.” - On which says Aquinas’ recent Roman editor, Hyacinthe de Ferrari: “Ex Amalriei discipulis crant isti; qui dicebant Romam case Babylonem,* et Romanum Pontificem Antichristum; sanctorum cultum idolatriam esse, &c.” He refers for authorty to Berti, Brev. Sec. xiii.: and adds; “Ideo tempore Silvestri Papę, &c., quia ipse excommunicavit cos ą quibus exulavit.” Th. Aquin. De Antichristo, i. 102.

Mosheim states that Amalric was sometimes Professor of Logic and Theology at Paris: that his disciples received with the utmost faith Joachim’s predictions; that he held sundry heretical opinions: and that his bones were dug up and publicly burnt in the year 1209. Mosh. xiii. 2, 5, 12, 13.

*In this, I ought to observe, Amarric had for a supporter the Parisian “irrefrageble doctor” of the Schools himself, Alexander de Hales. (Died 1245.) In his Comment on (Apoc. xvii. 2, “With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.”) he thus writes: - “The Franciscans dwelling on earth, that is, loving the things of earth, were made drunk, that is, were turned aside from their right path, by the wine of her corruption; i.e. of the city of Rome, or of some prelates of the Church.” Cited by Mr. C. Maitland, 338. I have not myself had an opporunity of consulting his Apocayptic Commentary.

[216] Mosh. ibid.

[217] See my Vol. ii. p. 34.

[218] So Mosheim xiii. 2. 2. 36. Vitringa p. 1007, says, “Legi excerpta interpretationis ejus Apocalyptieę (i.e. P. Olivi) cum admiratione.” He refers to Baluzius’ Miscell. as containing it. - In his Section 54, selected for condemnation by the Papal inquisitors, I see the Apocalyptic Harlot is made to comprehend both Rome Pagan and Rome Papal. “The woman here stands for the people and empire of Rome, both as she existed formerly in a state of Paganism, and as she had since existed in the [profest] faith of Christ, though by many crimes committing fornication with this world.” ap. Gieseler ii. 304.

[219] “Quņd Antichristus proprius et magnus erit Pseudo-Papa, caput Pseudo-Prophetarum.” Gieseler ii. ibid. To whose abstract of Pierre d’Olive’s 60 Artices I beg to refer the reader. Pierre d’Olive died, according to Gieseler, A.D. 1297.

[220] Inferno, Canto xix. 106.

Di voi pastor ‘l Vangelista,

Quando colei che siede sovra l’acque

Puttaneggiar co regi a lui fu vista:

Quella che con le sette teste nacque,

E dalle diece corna ebbe argomento.

This with reference specially to the simony and avarice of the Popes and Roman Church. On which says his Commentator, Pompeo Venturi; ‘Dante empiamente intende qui nell’ infame donna la dignitą Pontificia, come residente in Roma; e, per meglio dire, stesse Pontifici simoniaci.”

[221] In his xxth Epistle he calls the Papal Court the Babylonian Harlot, Mother of all idolatries and fornications.

[222] Compare Hippolytus, p. 140suprą.

[223] Aventinus’ Annal. Boiom. B. vii.

[224] Martene’s Collect. Ampl. I borrow this from Mr. C. Maitland, p. 347; not having myself access to Martene’s book. He dates him A.D. 1360.

Of the few Romanistic Apocalyptic expositions between T. Aquainas and the Reformation, unnoticed in my text above, the most eminent perhaps were P trus Aureolus the Franciscan, who wrote A.D. 1317, Nicholas de Lyra of the 14th century, (died 1340,) and Dionyius Cathusianus about the middle fo the 15th century.

As regards the latter, I believe there was nothing very new or remarkable in his Apocalyptic view. - In Petrus Aureolus I infer from Mr. C. M’s notice of him, p. 349, that the Saracens, Byzantine Emperors, and Turks, figured prominently among the Church’s enemies, supposed to be Apocalyptically predicted. - But Lyranus’ scheme was more peculiar. He explained the prophecy as continuously historical, (without break even at the 7th Trumpet’s sounding,) in reference to the history of Roman Christendom from the Apostolic ęra to the time of the end. Thus the Seals run on to Diocletian’s time:: the 6th Seal figuring the terrors of Diocletian’s persecution; the sealing vision, the saved Church’s conversion under Constantine. The six Trumpets are the voices of Councils , or Church, against the chief successive heretics, Arius,Macedonius, Pelagius, Eutyches, Valens, and those of A.D. 493 in Italy and Greece; the Angel of Apoc. x., the emperor Justin interposing with his little book of decrees in favor of Catholic truth; the two witnesses, Pope Sylvester and the Bishop Mena, exiled or imprisoned for 3 1/2 years (answering to the Apoclypitc 3 1/2 days) by Justinian;* the man-child of Apoc. xii., Heraclius; the Beast of Apoc. xiii., Chosroes’ son wounded in conflict with Heraclius; the 144,000 of Apoc. xiv., monks and virgins to that number slain by the Saracens soon after Heraelius’ death, the Vials, acts of Roman Popes, or of princes sanctioned by them, against iconoclastic or Ghibelline emperors, heathen people, or false Popes, from Adrian’s iconoclastic bulls, A.D. 740, to Peter the Hermit and the 1st Crusade A.D. 1094. The 5th Vial Lyra construed of the emperor Otho’s vial of wrath on Pope John, thrust by Crescentius into the Papal see: so says Purcus, making Papal Rome the “seat of the Beast” - Further, Lyra expounded Daniel’s 45 days as 45 years Malv. ii. 244.

* The common explanation, says De Lyra, expounds the two witnesses as Enoch and Elias, the future witnesses against Antichrist; and that their bodies, after slaughter by Antichrist, will be “in medio civitatis magnę; i.e. Congregationis Antichristo adhęrentis, quę erit valdč magna.”

The Babylon of Apoc. xvii., however, De Lyra explains, I think, to be the Turkish empire; the seven hills its seven chief provinces, and seven kings those provinces, ruling Pashas.

[225] See my Vol. ii. pp. 370, 303.

[226] See Ibid. 371

[227] See my Vol. ii. p. 371.

[228] Ibid. p. 394.

[229] See my Vol. ii. p. 428

[230] “Wielif’s days were passed in incessant warfare against ‘this Master of the Emperor, this Fellow of God, this Deity on earth.’ And whatever may at any period have been his respect for the Pope in the ideal perfection of his character, - of the actual Pope he scruples not to pronounce that he is “potissimus Antichristus,’ the veriest Antichrist.” Le Bas, 333.

Among Wielif’s writings Le Bas mentions one in Apocalypsin Joannis. This I have not seen.

[231] Foxe, Vol. iii. pp. 131-138

[232] Ib. 136.

[233] Ib. 139.

[234] Foxe, vol. iii. pp. 139, 140.

[235] Ib. p. 141.

[236] Ib. p. 142.

[237] About 180, A.D.

[238] Compare Tichonius’ explanation, “ore sanctę terrę,” noted. pp. 162, 163 suprą.

[239] His mode of identifying this with the 1260 days is curious. The time first mentioned is the greatest time that we speak of, i.e. 1000 years; the times next mentioned 100 years each, of which we have here indicated, these together with the former making 1000 +260 years; then the half time added being about 50 years. Foxe, 143.

[240] P. 144.

[241] So Adso, p. 180, Note 1498 supra.

[242] Compare T. Aquinas, p. 207 suprą.

[243] How well and justly argued!

[244] i.e. Fitzralph, a great enemy to the Friars; in 1333 Chancellor of Oxford, in 1317 Bishop of Armagh.

[245] Here Walter Brute is less happy. His own theory of Antichrist required his application of this chronological period as the measure of Papal Rome’s duration in power.

[246] 175.

[247] 162.

[248] 171, 174.

[249] 183.

[250] 185.