And let me just repeat here, what was passingly observed before 33 with reference to the literal Israels part in the matter, that there has been a very general abandonment by modern commentators, of the decided anti-Jewish views of the predicted blessedness held by the ancient Fathers. It was laid down by Origen, Augustine, and others, that though the Jews would be converted to Christ before the final judgment, its result would be only their becoming part and parcel of the Church Universal; and being then so merged in it as to lose all national distinctness, and of course to have no national restoration to their own land and their ancient city. 34 But, after the Reformation, other views gradually obtained more and more on the subject: and Whitby,35 in common with others of the same as well as of different prophetic views, 36 declared himself compelled by force of Scripture evidence to admit that, on the times of the Gentiles being fulfilled, the converted Jews will, as a distinct people, re-occupy the Holy Land and Jerusalem. And indeed, admitting their conversion, (which who can doubt?) the strength of evidence on this point seems to me irresistible.37 So that we cannot eliminate this condition out of our problem. We cannot admit into the list of possible hypotheses, so as we might otherwise have done, not without much plausibility, that the Jerusalem of the latter-day glory predicted in the Old Testament is to be construed , either with Irenæus as figuring simply and solely the millennial glory of the Christian Church on earth, or with Augustine as figuring the eternal glory of the Church of the resurrection, in a still higher and heavenly state of blessedness.38 It must be confessed, I think, that the literal Israel, in its national character, and its city the literal Jerusalem, enter, beyond what these old patristic expositors taught, into Old Testament prophecies of the future blessedness.39 And the only question for the Apocalyptic exposition is,
33. p. 87.
34. Whitby, in his Appendix to the xith Chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, thus describes Origens view. In his (Origens) Book against Celsus, he saith not, They shall never be converted to the Christian faith, but that they should never be restored to their own worship or country: . . We confidently affirm (oti oud apokatastaqhsontai) that they shall never again be restored to Jerusalem or the land of promise, which before they were. - So too Augustine only speaks of their conversion: never, I believe, of their national restoration in Palestine. (See p. 72 Note 605.) And when Jerome, on Habak. iii., speaking of the cursed fig-tree in Matt. xxi. 19 as signifying a curse on the Jews, adds, Sed cùm sæculum istud pertransierit, et intraverit plenitudo gentium, tune etiam hæc ficus afferet fructus suos, et omnis Israel salvabitur, he means similarly, I believe, only their conversion, not their national restoration. - So too Tertullian adv. Marc. iii. 24; Chrysostom adv. Jud.; Jerome on Is. i.; Ephrem Syrus on Dan. ix. 27; &c.
35. See the citation p. 88 This fact of their restoration to their own land, and rebuilding of Jerusalem may probably be collected, he says, from those words of Christ, Jerusalem shall be trodden down till the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled; and all the prophets seem to declare that the Jews shall then return to their own land. See Jer. xxxi. 38-40, Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that the city shall be built to the LORD from the tower of Hananeel unto the gate of the corner. 39: And the measuring line shall yet go forth over against it upon the hill Gareb, and shall compass about to Goath. 40: And the whole valley of the dead bodies, and of the ashes, and all the fields unto the brook of Kidron, unto the corner of the horse gate toward the east, shall be holy unto the LORD; it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down any more for ever.. Yet, he adds, do I confidently deny that the temple of Jerusalem shall be then built again: &c.
36. Prideaux, in his Inaug. Orat. vi. 7, notes as agreeing on this point, inter recentiores, P. Martyr, Beza, Grinæus, Panæus, et in Hexaplâ and Willetus. So too Prideaux himself, though a decided anti-premillennarian, the learned Dr. Owen, &c.
So again in the present day Mr. Scott; also Mr. Brown, as cited by me p. 87, 88 suprà. Nor does Archbishop Whately deny that there may be a political or national restoration of the Jews; though strongly denying that there will be any religious distinction. See his Millennial Chapter, in the Essay on a Future State.
37.Deut. xxx. 1-6, seems to me almost by itself decisive on the point. And it shall come to pass, when all these things are come upon thee, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before thee, and thou shalt call them to mind among all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath driven thee, 2: And shalt return unto the LORD thy God, and shalt obey his voice according to all that I command thee this day, thou and thy children, with all thine heart, and with all thy soul; 3: That then the LORD thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath scattered thee. 4: If any of thine be driven out unto the outmost parts of heaven, from thence will the LORD thy God gather thee, and from thence will he fetch thee: 5: And the LORD thy God will bring thee into the land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it; and he will do thee good, and multiply thee above thy fathers. 6: And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live. - So that the only ground on which a denial of Israels national restoration to Palestine seems maintainable is a denial of their national conversion. A denial which who can make after St. Pauls declaration, Rom. xi. 25, 26, For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in. 26: And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob: - &c.; not to say that, to the same purport, of nearly all the prophets?
As a late eminent testimony to this effect, I may refer to the late Bishop of Londons (Bloomfields) Sermon before the Jews Society. That which is here spoken of as a possible contingency, (viz. the repossession of their own land, &c., as predicted in Deut. xxx. 3, &c.,) is distinctly foretold by later prophets, as an event which will assuredly come to pass. The eighth and three last chapters of Zechariah cannot, we think, without doing violence to all the laws of interpretation, be so explained as not to imply a future restoration of the Jews to their ancient and covenanted inheritance, and the re-establishment of the holy city of Jerusalem in splendor and strength. Jerusalem, says the prophet, shall be safely inhabited; it shall be lifted up, and inhabited in her place: and men shall dwell in it; and there shall be no more utter destruction. Then, after observing that these words can scarce by possibility be understood in a purely spiritual sense, of the heavenly Jerusalem, - the Bishop adds, that any such spiritual interpretation is positively precluded by Christs prophecy about
where Jerusalem being trodden down by the Gentiles till the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. For, as the city of Jerusalem is to be trodden down, so the city of Jerusalem shall be built up.
38.This last without any yet future earthly Millennium of righteousness first intervening. - As to Augustines idea of the Millennium being past, its Apocalyptic position after Antichrists destruction (see p. 75 suprà) is a difficulty that the Protestant advocates of this view can never overcome.
39.Some writers indeed still deny this; for example, the Author of the Rector in Search of a Curate. His theory is that wherever a national or local restoration of the Jews is predicted, it either means the first restoration from Babylon; or a restoration conditionally promised, and which, from the circumstance of the Jews not fulfilling the conditions, has not been, and will not be fulfilled. (Of prophecies, such as in Deut. xxx. and Zech. xii., where God promises his Spirits effusion in order to enable them to fulfill the conditions, he says nothing.) In all other prophecies he applies what is said of the latter-day glory of Jerusalem to the Christian Church.  It will, I think, suffice to satisfy the reader on this theorys unsoundness, if he try it simply by those chapters of Zechariah which the Bishop of London refers to. The British Quarterly Reviewer (p. 168) only escapes from the cogency of these last-mentioned prophecies by the suggestion that they are not Zechariahs but the writing of an earlier prophet.
where to place them in his scheme of unfulfilled prophecy; and how to associate the blessedness of Israels national restoration with, or how dissociate it from, the predicted glories of the Millennium of the Apocalypse and its New Jerusalem.
Now, that we are not to identify the restored Jewish people with the constituency of the Apocalyptic New Jerusalem, or their restored earthly and holy city with that Holy City, appears to me perfectly clear. For it would be contrary to the whole analogy of Apocalyptic interpretation to attach to these symbols such a meaning; seeing that from the very beginning of this prophecy, even throughout, Jewish emblems have been proved to be used of the Christian Church. - The fitness of this application of them seemed to us evident à priori. The natural Israel as a nation having rejected, and so been rejected by God, the Christian visible Church, primarily Jewish, and though made up chiefly of a Gentile constituency, yet of Gentiles engrafted by the apostles on the Abrahamic-stock, became, as it were, Gods substituted visible Israel:  and thus by St. Paul, we saw,  as well as other apostles, had had Jewish titles and emblems, both civic and ecclesiastical, as well as the Abrahamic promises, applied to it,  long before St. Johns exile to Patmos. Then, in the introductory Apocalyptic vision, the representation of Christ, the Christian Churchs head, under guise of the Jewish High Priest, and that of the seven Asiatic Christian Churches under the symbol of seven golden lamps, like those of the Jewish temple, was an express recognition of this principle of application; and prepared the Seer for a similar application of Jewish emblems to the Christian Church in the subsequent visions, upon a larger scale.  And so the temple-court and service marked in those visions its ecclesiastical state and service;  the twelve tribes of Israel the constituency of its visible professing body, i.e., so soon as it should have attained dominancy and a political form in the Roman world:  an election out of these tribes (144,000 out of all the tribes of Israel), Christs true Church, on the mass becoming corrupt, and at length heathen-like and apostate:  and the Holy City, the polity of the same holy seed, the association of the faithful and elect, the true Israel.  Which being so, how could the symbol of Holy City, the New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, be interpreted with an consistency to signify the converted Jews, and earthly rebuilt Jerusalem? How to signify anything else than the same body of the 144,000, Christs spiritual Israel, the called and chosen and faithful, - inclusive of course of all their successive generations, agreeably with its mystic form of a cube made up of many squares:  - of these generations, I say, caught up to Christ at his coming, and now in the resurrection-state glorified as the sons of God:  perfect, according to the Redeemers intercessory prayer,  in number and unity, as well as glory; the City of God (to use Augustines phrase) now at length made complete; the Jerusalem above, (to use St. Pauls,) long time preparing for the saints its citizens, which is the mother of us all?  Indeed Christs promise in Apoc. iii. 12, Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name. - fixes this meaning on it.
As to the very interesting but difficult question of the chronological place of the Apocalyptic vision of this New Jerusalem, whether inclusively millennial or wholly post-millennial, a cursory reader might deem it at once settled by the introduction statement in Apoc. xxi. 1, And I say a new heaven and a new earth; (for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away;) and I say the holy city Jew Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven: compared with that in Apoc. xx. 11, just before, that it was from the face of him that took seat on the great white throne that the [former] earth and heaven fled away, and there was no place found for them. Surely, it might be thought, this is a post-millennial definition of time and order not to be mistaken. - And then too, the fact of death and the curse having no existence in the New Jerusalem state will seem to him strong confirmation of that view; compared with the previously stated fact of its being not till after the judgment of the great white throne, that death and hades were cast into the lake of fire.
On a more enlarged consideration of the question, however, the following strong presumptive evidence will be found to favor the view which supposes the New Jerusalem to have had existence from the commencement, and throughout the progress, of the millennial period.
1. Whereas two things had been mentioned previously, as its subjects of congratulation, in the Churchs joyous song of triumph on Antichrists overthrow, Apoc. xix. 6, 7, And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. 7: Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready. - viz. the one, the fact of Christs mundane reign beginning, the other, that of the Lambs marriage having come, and his wife having made herself ready, - and, whereas, of these two things, the establishment of the kingdom was immediately afterwards figured to St. John in the emblem of thrones being set, and the risen martyrs and saints taking seat thereon, and judgment being given them,  - whereas, I say, the first of these two things was thus duly symbolized whatsoever in the Apocalyptic visions of the Lambs synchronical bridal, and bride,  unless this emblematic vision were supposed to represent it; and consequently to synchronize in its introduction with the setting of the thrones of judgment, and opening of the Millennium.  2. The account St. John gives of the manner of his seeing the New Jerusalem confirms this view of the matter. For while, on the one hand, the fact of his having been a symbolic man, or representative of Christs earthly Church,  thus far in the prefigurative visions, would lead us in consistency so to regard him still, and consequently in the circumstance of his being carried away in the spirit, through angelic ministration, to a sight of its interior state and glory, to recognize the indication of an earthly Church distinct from, though synchronous with, this New Jerusalem of the resurrection-saints,  such as we know will continue through the Millennium, - on the other, what could be the reason of one of the Angels that had the seven last Vial-plagues showing it him, unless to mark that the thing he exhibited was to be the speedy consequence or sequel of those Vial-outpourings? Besides which, there is the very singular coincidence of St. Johns being said (I presume as a symbolic man) to have fallen down at the feet of the revealing Angle to worship him, on this exhibition of the Lambs bride, the New Jerusalem just as he was before said to have done on the Angels primary intimation to him after Antichrists destruction, concerning the bride and bridal, and to have received in either case precisely the same answer and rebuke: - a coincidence scarce explicable, as it seems to me, except on the hypothesis of the fallings down being one and the same act, though twice noted in the Apocalyptic description;  indeed as noted probably for the very purpose of marking more significantly the chronological parallelism or identity of the two visions. - 3. To the same effect, thirdly, is what is said of the nations [of them that are saved] walking in the light of it, and the kings of the earth bringing their glory and honor into it;  and again, of the leaves of the tree being for the healing of the nations.  For how can we explain this, except on the supposition of men existing on earth, and in the earthly state, such as needed healing,  contemporarily with the higher and heavenly glory of the New Jerusalem: the idea of these men, nations, and kings of the earth signifying saints in the resurrection-state, being an alternative which few probably will be inclined to embrace? No doubt we may suppose men living on the earth, to whom this healing apply, after the Millennium. But would not the healing virtue be needed by men, in order to its being a millennium of happiness, just as much during it? And, if so, whence to be derived but from the New Jerusalem? - 4. Then comes the important consideration, (one already briefly alluded to in my preceding Chapter,)  that in Dan. vii. 18, But the saints of the most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever. - the saints everlasting reign being made to date from Antichrists fall seems to require that the everlasting reign predicated in Apoc. xxii. 5, And there shall be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign for ever and ever. - of the saints of the New Jerusalem should date similarly from Antichrists destruction, and so include the Millennium as its commencing æra. For when the Apocalypse says of the saints, with reference, incipiently, as would seem, to the state and æra of the New Jerusalem, they shall reign for ever and ever, can we well suppose that its for ever and ever means Daniels for ever and ever minus the first 1000 years? - Yet once more, 5thly and lastly, comes up for consideration the all-important parallelism of Isaiahs new heaven and earth with the Apocalyptic new heaven and earth of St. John. For surely all fair presumption is in favor of their identity; Isaiahs main object of description only being the new earth, St. Johns the new heaven. And if so, then, since Isaiahs commence from the restoration of the Jews and of their earthly Jerusalem, at the opening of the Millennium, we seem all but forced to suppose the same of the Apocalyptic new heaven and earth; and, by consequence, of their heavenly Jerusalem also.
It may indeed be suggested that the epoch of the New Jerusalems descent from heaven, and manifestation to men, noted in Apoc. xxi. 2, And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. - may be an epoch in the history of the Holy City later than that of its first constitution at the saints rising; the one marking the commencing æra of the Millennium, the other its conclusion. But this seems inconsistent with St. Pauls explicit declaration that it is the manifestation of the sons of God, or glorified body of the risen saints, (that is, of the New Jerusalem,) that is to be the occasion of the creations deliverance from the bondage of corruption, in other words of the first commencement of its millennial blessedness. Besides, if Isaiahs new heaven and earth fix on the Apocalyptic new heaven and earth a millennial commencement, this involves the same commencing date also to the Apocalyptic New Jerusalem, as first seen by St. John coming down from heaven to earth; seeing that it was then that Christ said, I make all things new. And indeed the phrase prepared as a bride could scarce be said of it, except at the epoch of the bridal.
It is not to be wondered at, where such strong arguments press antagonistically on either side, that expositors should have been greatly perplexed and divided as to the exact location of the Apocalyptic New Jerusalem vision. After much consideration and re-consideration of the subject, I have come in fine to a conclusion respecting it partly different from, partly the same with, what was given in the three first Editions. As before, I cannot resist the arguments just stated for the vision being regarded as millennial in its incipient chronology. On the other hand I feel even yet more strongly than before, (though certainly never insensible to it,) the difficulty arising out of the apparently unequivocal sequence of the Apocalyptic new heaven and earth upon the fleeing away of the old heaven and earth from the face of Him who took seat on the great white throne. - But is it then impossible to reconcile the inconsistency? It has occurred to me that it may be reconciled, and the chief difficulty of the subject overcome, by a different view, from that which has hitherto obtained, of the chronological place an æra of the great white throne. The idea first arose in my mind out of the view of the Millennium suggested by Mr. Mede, (after certain of the ancient Fathers,)  as itself the day of judgment.  This view seemed to me reasonable and scriptural. Wherefore, à priori, should we suppose the day of judgment to be one single solar day, any more than the day of salvation to be one single solar day? And, as to Scriptural evidence, might not Peters inspired declaration, A thousand years are with the Lord as one day, said in direct connection with the subjects of Christs judgment-day and the new earth and heaven, suffice of itself to prove its Scripturalness? Besides, if the thrones on which the souls of martyrs took seat were thrones of judgment as well as rule, and the martyrs rule or reign was declaredly prolonged through the 1000 years, the inference seems natural that their office of judges too, and so the judgment itself also, must be regarded as prolonged through the 1000 years. - But then what of the Chief Judge, and his throne of judgment? On turning to the parallel vision in Daniel we find it implied, as well as the subordinate thrones for the saints: - I beheld till the thrones were placed;  and the Ancient of days did sit, i.e. on his throne of judgment. Can we then reasonably suppose that in the Apocalyptic visions this, the most august feature in the whole scene of judgment, was wanting? Or, if figured, that it would be altogether past over in silence by the recording Evangelist? Supposing which two suppositions to be negatived, we are almost forced on the idea of the great white throne of Apoc. xx. 11, And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them. - being the very throne in question, seeing that none other is mentioned: and so that it was occupied by the Divine Judge at the opening, as well as close, of the millennial judgment-day.  - The specified fact of the books being opened, before Him who sate on it, just as the books were opened before the Ancient of days in Daniel,  is a point of agreement so striking as to go far to identify them. - Nor do I see anything in St. Johns description to negative the idea. The circumstance of the great white throne being mentioned after the notice of God and Magogs post-millennial outrage, is no valid objection at all against it; because retrogression, for the purpose of supplying what needed to be supplied, by way of addition or explanation, is not uncommon in the Apocalyptic prophecy. Nor can it be objected that there would be wanting on this hypothesis a judgment of those who lived not again till after the expiring of the Millennium; seeing that it supposes the judgment of the great white throne, and sitting of the Judge thereon, to be even then unfinished: there being two great acts of judgment by Him who sate thereon; the one great act at the Millenniums commencement, the other at its conclusion. - In further corroboration of the view, I may observe that the correspondence of the vision with the announcement in Apoc. xi. 18, And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth. - of what was to take place under the 7th Trumpet would be more evident and complete according to it, than on the usual view which postpones the judgment of the great white throne, and connected fact of the dead rising before it to judgment, altogether to a post-millennial epoch. For what was then the announcement? The time is come of the dead that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and to them that fear thy name, small and great. And whereas, on the old hypothesis, none of the dead were expressly specified as raised or rewarded but the anti-Pagan and anti-Papal martyrs, on the present the resurrection of the dead small and great, mentioned in Apoc. xx. 12, And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. would be construed as having beginning at the beginning of the Millennium, as well as completion at its conclusion: with reward to the righteous given in the first instance; and retribution too to the wicked first privatively, afterward positively.  - As to the parallel prophecies in Isaiah, St. Peter, and Daniel, the harmony of the Apocalyptic with them too would be also then complete and evident. The passing away of the old heaven and earth, and substitution of the new, together with the commencement of the saints everlasting reign, would in every case begin with the fall of Antichrist, and the Jews restoration: - there being moreover coincidently, what St. Paul declares coincident, the manifestation of the sons of God; that is, of the New Jerusalem.
Yet once more, there may be light thrown on certain other prophetic difficulties by this view of the millennial judgment-day; considered with double reference distinctively to its two great epochs of the commencement and the close. E.g. a more partial conflagration might be supposed to mark the commencement of the Millennium, one more complete its close: each included, as if one, in St. Peters prophecy, though separated in the Apocalypse; as binary stars are resolved into two only on nearer view. Again, as to what is said of the sea being no more,  (if literally meant,) while what was known as the sea of the ancient world, viz. the Mediterranean,  might by the convulsions at the opening of the Millennium have its bed elevated, and made dry land, the whole ocean might at the second and final convulsion become physically no more. So too the triumph over death, begun strikingly with the saints first resurrection at its commencement,  would be completed strikingly by the casting of death and hades into the lake of fire at its close; and much the same of the judgment in Matt. xxv. on the righteous and wicked. In fine, as regards the New Jerusalem, it is quite consistent with our hypothesis to suppose the manifestation of its glory, and its union with the new earth and its inhabitants, though begun at the commencement of the Millennium, to be yet at its close still more complete and perfect.
Such then is the view that I conclude on, as the one most consistent alike with the Apocalypse itself, and with other parallel Scripture prophecies on this great subject.
As regards the earlier and millennial period of the New Jerusalem, it is of course among the Apocalyptic nations [of them that are saved], which are said to walk in its light, and the kings of the earth, which are said to bring their glory and honor into it, that we are to place the restored Jews and Gentile remnant saved from the primary conflagration, of whom the Old Testament prophecy speaks so much: - the Jews having now a certain pre-eminence and peculiar glory, such as seem constantly predicted of Israel and the earthly Jerusalem, in the earlier prophecies of the latter day. With which view the statement that in Christ Jesus there is neither Jew nor Greek, circumcision or uncircumcision, is not, I think, inconsistent: - seeing that that statement had reference to the premillennial times of the gathering out of all nations of the Church of the redeemed, the New Jerusalem; wherein equal honors and an equal reward, were intended for the engrafted as for the natural members of the true Israel: but not to the very different times, and different dispensation, of the Millennium. - It seems to me probable that by the beloved city of Apoc. xx. 9, And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them. we are to understand this earthly Jerusalem; though it may also perhaps be understood of the heavenly or new Jerusalem. But in any case there must be supposed, I conceive, a most intimate connection of the one Jerusalem with the other: the earthly Jerusalem being that upon, or over which, the glory of the New Jerusalem is to rest; like as Jehovahs pillar of fire on the tabernacle in the wilderness, or the more awful glory on the top of Sinai.  Here, I say, it would seem that there is to be the meeting-point of earth and heaven; and that same conjunction to be visibly manifested, of which I spoke before in my preceding chapter,  of the ultimate blessedness of the spiritual and of the natural seed of Abraham: - a conjunction and blending together of the two so intimate, that it is often difficult, if not impossible, to discern in prophecy where the one ends and the other begins.
And thus, when we turn to consider the state of things during the Millennium, our minds seem irresistibly directed to Jerusalem, as the Mother-Church of a Christianized universe: (for even though we admitted the literal Judaic character of the Jerusalem in Ezekiels last obscure construction of its temple and its sacrifices:)  I say as the Mother-Church of a Christian world, and focus and center of the glories of that latter day. There the Shechinah of Messiahs presence is, as it would seem, to shine refulgent;  there the King to be seen in his beauty;  there too probably the manifestation to be made, more fully than elsewhere, of the perfected company of the redeemed, the general assembly and Church of the firstborn, now entered on their inheritance,  the glorified sons of God:  - who, entrusted with the new earths government, subordinately to Christ himself, in gracious reward of past service,  (perhaps after the example of those angels that, having kept their first estate, have had this present earth entrusted to their charge and ministry,)  shall be recognized as the constituency of the New Jerusalem, in all their resurrection glories,  resurrection dispensation.  - Meanwhile thither, concomitantly, are to converge the desires and the gatherings of the whole family of man. The mountain of the Lords house having been established on the top of the mountains, all nations shall flow unto it;  and the Lords prophecy be fulfilled, I, if I be lifted up, shall draw all men to me.  The blessedness thence resulting is to be universal. The creature, delivered from the bondage of corruption, is to experience the glorious liberty of the children of God: the river of life from Gods throne diffusing its blessings over the world, and the leaves of the trees beside it being for the healing of the nations. And as the knowledge of the Lord now covers the earth, like as the waters of the sea,  and holiness and peace and joy everywhere blend together, the Lord shall again rejoice in his works;  yea shall joy over them with singing, and rest in his love.  It shall be the resumption of his sabbatism; a sabbatism begun at the jubilee of mans creation, but immediately after all suddenly and rudely interrupted by mans apostasy: - his resumption of it after the accomplishment of that work that he has ever since then, conjointly with the Father, been engaged in;  - his work, his mightiest work, of redemption.
O scenes surpassing fable, and yet true!
Scenes of accomplished bliss! which who can see
Though but in distant prospect, and not feel
His soul refreshed with foretaste of the joy? 
I quote from one who is a meet minstrel on such a topic; and subjoin yet another extract from him, depicting the scene and its blessedness.  The subject is one too high and holy for my own rude touch. I pass from it.
Meanwhile (so the Apocalypse, as well as other Scripture prophecy, informs us) an awful monument will remain, and be visible, of a once different state of things; - a monument of the guilt and punishment of the age preceding. It has always been Gods plan that such memorials should exist, as a warning against sin, under every dispensation; - under the patriarchal that of the accursed ground, and then of the deluge; under the Abrahamic and Mosaic that of Sodom; under the Christian that of Jerusalem trodden down, and the Jewish exiles dispersed everywhere, with the brand of Gods curse upon them. And now there is to be that of the mystic Babylon, or Roman earth and Antichrist, swallowed up in the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone; the smoke of which goeth up for ever and ever.  This scene the Apocalypse figured to St. John. And with it correspond those most awful and striking words which close Isaiahs prophecy, in reference evidently to the times of the Millennium: - And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched: and they shall be an adhorring unto all flesh. 
So during the Millennium. - And if, notwithstanding all this, notwithstanding both the warning, and glory, and the blessedness, the Devil do yet succeed afterwards, on his being loosed, in seducing the nations in the four corners of the world, what the wonder; considering the history of the seductions of Adam and Eve in a former paradisiacal state, and when enjoying the intimacy and the vision of God. It will only be a new example how the creature, by himself, when tempted will fall. - Again, the mad attempt of those deceived ones against even the camp of the saints and the beloved city, need not surprise him who has studied mans corruption and daring, in the history of Israels rebellion at the foot of the burning mount of Sinai.  - And to the speedy, if not instant destruction of the rebels, it needs not that I expatiate on it; or on the subsequent fate of the world. Where revelation is silent, it were vain to conjecture. Suffice it to remark from the Apocalyptic prophecy, respecting the seduced, that they are to be destroyed by fire: - respecting the Devil, the tempter, that he is forthwith, with all his associated evil angels, to be cast into the same lake, burning with fire and brimstone, where the Beast and False Prophet were cast before: - respecting the saints, that, instead of closing their reign with the Millennium, they are in some way still to reign even for ever:  - respecting the rest of men, that there is to follow after Gog and Magogs destruction their general resurrection: and a judgment before the great white throne, which I conceive to have been first set at the opening of the Millennium,  whereby all not written in the Book of Life will be cast into the lake of fire. - In St. Pauls comprehensive summary of the final future, 1 Cor. xv. 24, 28, (a passage already cited in the controversial part of my preceding chapter,) we read thus of this epoch; Afterward cometh the end when He shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father, that God may be all in all. And there is yet one farther glimpse into ages still to come, opened to us by St. Paul; with reference to the influence on other worlds and intelligences of this our planets history. He tells how the story of its redemption is to be through eternity itself a chief lesson to them of the marvels of divine grace:  - that in the ages to come  He might show the exceeding riches of his grace, in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus. 
I may fitly here subjoin the conclusion of the Apocalypse. - xxii. 6. And he said unto me, These sayings are faithful and true: and the Lord God of the holy prophets  sent his angel to shew unto his servants the things which must shortly be done. 7: Behold, I come quickly: blessed is he that keepeth the sayings of the prophecy of this book. 8: And I John saw these things, and heard them. And when I had heard and seen, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel which shewed me these things. 9: Then saith he unto me, See thou do it not: for I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them which keep the sayings of this book: worship God. 10: And he saith unto me, Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book: for the time is at hand. 11: He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him do righteousness  still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still. 12: And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be.
13: I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last. 14: Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city. 15: For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie. 16: I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star. 17: And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely. 18: For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: 19: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the tree  of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written of  this book. 20: He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus
 His admission is observable, that if the Jews national restoration to their own land be a fact predicted, Christs personal reign must be a fact predicted also.
 So Rom. xi. 17-24, And if some of the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive tree, wert graffed in among them, and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive tree; 18: Boast not against the branches. But if thou boast, thou bearest not the root, but the root thee. 19: Thou wilt say then, The branches were broken off, that I might be graffed in. 20: Well; because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou standest by faith. Be not highminded, but fear: 21: For if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare not thee. 22: Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God: on them which fell, severity; but toward thee, goodness, if thou continue in his goodness: otherwise thou also shalt be cut off. 23: And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be graffed in: for God is able to graff them in again. 24: For if thou wert cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and wert graffed contrary to nature into a good olive tree: how much more shall these, which be the natural branches, be graffed into their own olive tree?.
 See my Vol. i. pp. 259, 260.
 E.g. Gal. iii. 29, And if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.; vi. 16, And as many as walk according to this rule, peace be on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God.; Eph. ii. 12, That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:, 19, Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God;; 1 Pet. ii. 9, 10, But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light: 10: Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.; &c.
 See my Introduction, Vol. i. pp. 71-74.
 See Vol. i. pp. 101, 102, Vol. ii. pp. 183-185.
 See my Vol. i. pp. 259-266.
 Apoc. vii. 4, And I heard the number of them which were sealed: and there were sealed an hundred and forty and four thousand of all the tribes of the children of Israel.; xi. 2, But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two months.
 Ibid. and xiv. 1, And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads..
 Viz. 144 or 12 x 12 thousand; one thousand being the unit. - The cubic form of the New Jerusalem seems to me in this sense beautifully apt and significant.
 Rom. viii. 19, For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God..
 John xvii. 21-24, That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me. 22: And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one: 23: I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me. 24: Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world..
 Gal. iv. 26, But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all..
 Apoc. xx. 4, And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years..
 In the Old Testament prophecies of Christs bridal, as in Psalm xiv., lxii. 4, 5, Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken; neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate: but thou shalt be called Hephzi-bah, and thy land Beulah: for the LORD delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be married. 5: For as a young man marrieth a virgin, so shall thy sons marry thee: and as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee. , &c., the Jews are supposed to be in a living state on the earth.
 So Vitringa argues, p. 1188. - Even Mr. Brown, though viewing the New Jerusalem as a type of the glorified Church in its post-millennial blessedness, yet notes the incongruity of such a more than millennial interval between the brides preparing and the brides presentation. See his remarks at. p. 32.
 See my Vol. i. pp. 300-302, and Vol. ii. pp. 114, 115. In the description of the angel the words are observable, the measure of a man, i.e. of an angel. Apoc. xxi. 17, And he measured the wall thereof, an hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of the angel..
 On comparing Apoc. xxi. 2, And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband., with Apoc. xxi. 9, And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will shew thee the bride, the Lamb's wife. - and the sequel, it seems the most natural conclusion that what the second passage reports followed immediately after what is reported in the first: St. John first catching sight of the New Jerusalem as it descended; then hearing the voice from heaven about it; then being caught up by the Angel, ere the descent was completed, to have a fuller sight of its celestial glory.
 The coincidency of the two passages is very singular; and noted by Vitringa, p. 1226; who inclines to draw much the same conclusion for it as myself.
Apoc. xix. 7-10. Apoc. xxii. 8, 9.
The Marriage of the Lamb is come And I John saw these things and
and his wife hath made herself ready heard them: [including the descent of
(htoimasin iauthn). And to her was the New Jerusalem prepared, htoimas-
granted that she should be arrayed in menhn, as a bride for her husband.] And
fine linen, clean and white. . . And he when I had heard and soon, I fell down
saith unto me, Write; Blessed are they to worship before the feet of the angel
which are called to the marriage supper which showed me these things. Then
of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, saith he unto me, See thou do it not: for
These are the true sayings of God. And I am the fellow-servant of thyself and of
I fell at his feet to worship him. And he thy brethren the prophets, and of them
said unto me, See thou do it not. I am which keep the sayings of the book.
the fellow-servant of thyself and of thy Worship God.
brethren, that have the testimony of Je-
sus. Worship God.
 Apoc. xxi. 24, And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honour into it..
 Eiv qerapeian twn eqnwn. Apoc. xxii. 2. In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. Mr. Barker has suggested the different translation, for the service of the nations; so doing away with the idea of any healing agency being applied or needed. But 1st, though qerapeia means service, as well as healing, yet I know not any case where it is a thing not person: and with a genitive of the persons towards whom the service is performed. qerapeia autou may mean either the mans body of servants, (the abstract for the concrete,) as in Gen. xiv. 16, And he brought back all the goods, and also brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and the women also, and the people.; Matt. xxiv. 45, Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season?; Luke xii. 42, And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season?: - or attention and service rendered him by persons; as qerapeia qeou, the worship of God, Chrysost. Homil. 8; qerapeia twn filwn, attention to friends, Xen. Cyrop. viii. 2. 13: - or, healing of him, as Luke ix. 11, And the people, when they knew it, followed him: and he received them, and spake unto them of the kingdom of God, and healed them that had need of healing.. - Further, 2ndly, in the parallel passages, Ezek. xlvii. 12, And by the river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow all trees for meat, whose leaf shall not fade, neither shall the fruit thereof be consumed: it shall bring forth new fruit according to his months, because their waters they issued out of the sanctuary: and the fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for medicine., we read, the fruit (of the trees) shall be for meat, and the leaf for medicine; so fixing the sense.
 So Mr. Close, I see, unguardedly argues, though a strong anti-premillennarian. Sketches of Sermons, p. 22.
 See p. 85 suprà.
 E.g. Tertullian. See his Adv. Mare. iii. 25.
 Mede, p. 772. So too Birks Visions of Daniel, p. 372: to whose beautiful chapters on this subject I have pleasure in referring my readers.
 Explained v. 22; And judgment was given to the saints of the Most High.
 Jerome on Dan. vii., identifies the Ancient of days throne in Dan. vii. with the great while throne in the Apocalypse.
 Dan. vii. 10, A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.; Apoc. xx. 12, And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works..
 See p. 78 suprà.
 Apoc. xxi. 1, And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea..
 See Vol. i. p. 366. Some sea there must be in the Millennium, as the isles are often mentioned in Old Testament millennial prophecies.
 Even in regard to the earths inhabitants during the millennial period, though death be not as yet extinguished, yet may the dying very possibly be not until the end of the Millennium: as it is said, As the days of a tree are the days of my people; the leaves of the tree being for the healing of the nations: besides that death may be then without pain, and a mere easy translation to a heavenly state.
 Compare Isa. iv. 2-5: In that day shall the branch of the Lord be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely for them that are escaped of Israel. And it shall come to pass that he that is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, even every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem; when the Lord shall have washed way the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof, by the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of burning. And the Lord will create upon every dwelling-place of Mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for upon all the glory there shall be a defense.
 See p. 83.
 So the ancient father Justin Martyr in explaining his millennial view. Ou, en th palin parousia, mh doxhte legein Hsaian, h touv allouv profhtav, qusiav af aimatwn h spondwn epi to qusiasthrion anaferesqai, alla alhqinouv kai pneumatikouv ainouv kai eucaristiav. Dial. cum Tryph. Cited by Mede, p. 899, in proof of no such unscriptural idea being held by the early premillennarian fathers. In fact they were as opposed to it as Whitby himself; quoted Note 35, p. 104.
 Ps. cii. 16, When the LORD shall build up Zion, he shall appear in his glory, &c.
 Isaiah xxxiii. 17, Thine eyes shall see the king in his beauty: they shall behold the land that is very far off.
 Heb. xii. 23, To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,. Compare Deut. xxi. 17, But he shall acknowledge the son of the hated for the firstborn, by giving him a double portion of all that he hath: for he is the beginning of his strength; the right of the firstborn is his.
 Rom. viii. 19, For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God..
 Luke xix. 17, And he said unto him, Well, thou good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very little, have thou authority over ten cities.; Heb. ii. 5, For unto the angels hath he not put in subjection the world to come, whereof we speak. &c.
 Judes expression, The angels that kept not their first estate, implies their having been once in a state of probation. And where then? The resurrection of the geologist leave no reasonable doubt of our earths having been inhabited by animals, at least, in a pre-Adamitic age: and why not then by intelligent creatures also? Which supposition being admitted as at least possible, does it seem likely that some other distinct planet was the scene of the inhabitation and trial of these earlier probationists, and not our own? - especially considering that the organic pre-Adamitic remains that abound indicate violent death to have prevailed then as now; and by probable consequence sin, the cause of violence and death: - considering also that the Internal fires of this earthly planet (see pp. 24, 25, and 100, 101 supra) of seem not obscurely marked out in prophecy as the scene of the rebel angels future punishment; of their punishment, as if previously of their crime?
 The Author of the Book of Wisdom compares their bright and fitful appearance with the flashing of fire-sparks, (see the Note 729, p. 68,) or perhaps of the firefly. We may rather compare them with Christs appearances after his resurrection. - This rule of the glorified saints is not however to the exclusion of angels. See John i. 51, And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man..
 Such in Scripture is often the meaning of aiwn; e.g. Luke xx. 35, But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage:.
Irenæus, v. 46, thus reports the ancients idea as to the different degrees of blessedness in this age and state of the new heavens and earth. oi men kataxentev thv en ourany deatribhv ekeise cwrhsousi oi de thv tou IIaradeisou trufhv apolausousi oi de thn lamprothta thv polewv kaqexousin. IIantacou gar o Swthr draqhsetai.
 Isa. ii. 2, And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the LORD's house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it..
 John xii. 32, And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me..
 Isa. xi. 9, They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea..
 Psalm civ. 31, The glory of the LORD shall endure for ever: the LORD shall rejoice in his works.
 Zeph. iii. 17, The LORD thy God in the midst of thee is mighty; he will save, he will rejoice over thee with joy; he will rest in his love, he will joy over thee with singing..
 John v. 17; My Father worketh hitherto, and I work: - viz. I conceive, in the work of redemption; carried on alike on sabbaths and all other days.
For with reference to Gods resting, which is sometimes spoken of in Scripture, it seems to me that not the mere cessation from any particular work of his hands is implied, but also his complacency in its beauty and perfection. Thus when God rested, as we are told in Gen. ii. 2, And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. - that is, from his work of creation, it was after he had surveyed everything that he had made, and behold it was very good. But the instant that sin entered, and with sin the curse, this work was marred; and consequently, as I conceive, his rest in regard of it at once broken up. So that then, and thereupon, the new and mightier work of redeeming this marred world from the curse was to be entered on: that to which Christ, in the above-cited passage in St. John, seems to me to allude; and of the joyous resting from which, when perfected, both Zephaniah and St. Paul, (Heb. iii., iv.,) and others too of the prophets delight to speak.
 Cowpers Task, 6th Book.
 One song employs all nations, and all cry
Worthy the Lamb, for He was slain for us!
The dwellers in the vales and on the rocks
Shout to each other, and the mountain-tops
For distant mountains catch the flying joy;
Till, nation after nation taught the strain,
Earth rolls the rapturous Hosanna round.
Behold the measure of the promise filled:
See Salem built, the labor of a God!
Bright as a sun the sacred city shines.
All kingdoms and all princes of the earth
Flock to that light; the glory of all lands
Flows into her: unbounded is her joy,.
Praise is in all her gates: upon her walls,
And in her streets, and in her specious courts,
Is heard salvation. Eastern Java there
Kneels with the native of the farthest West;
And Ethiopia spreads abroad the hand,
And worship. Her report has traveled forth
Into all lands. From every clime they come,
To see thy beauty, and to share the joy,
O Sion! an assembly such as earth
Saw never; such as heaven stoops down to see.
 Apoc. xiv. 10, 11, The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: 11: And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.; xix. 3, And again they said, Alleluia. And her smoke rose up for ever and ever.
 Isa. lxvi. 24, And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men that have transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh..
 Exod. xxxii. 1, And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down out of the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him, Up, make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him., &c.
 Apoc. xxii. 5, And there shall be no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they shall reign for ever and ever..
 See p. 108.
 Eph. ii. 7, That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus..
 en toiv aiwsi toiv epercomenoiv.
 I may fitly here subjoin the conclusion of the Apocalypse. - xxii. 6. And he said unto me, These sayings are faithful and true: and the Lord God of the holy prophets (911) sent his angel to shew unto his servants the things which must shortly be done. 7: Behold, I come quickly: blessed is he that keepeth the sayings of the prophecy of this book. 8: And I John saw these things, and heard them. And when I had heard and seen, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel which shewed me these things. 9: Then saith he unto me, See thou do it not: for I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them which keep the sayings of this book: worship God.
10: And he saith unto me, Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book: for the time is at hand. 11: He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him do righteousness(912) still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still. 12: And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be. 13: I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last. 14: Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city. 15: For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie. 16: I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star. 17: And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely. 18: For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: 19: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the tree(913) of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written of (914) this book. 20: He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus
 o Oeov twn pneumatwn twn profhtwn. So the Critical editions generally.
 dlunontev tav stolav autwn. So Tregelles, Wordsworth, &c., instead of the received, poisuntev tav entolav autou, they tthat do his commandments. - The reference to Apoc. vii, 9, 13, 14, hence arising, seems to me very beautiful: beautiful both in itself, and as a connecting link between the there anticipatively foreshown state of heavenly bliss; and that which is here symbolized, as actually realized and present.
 xulou, instead of biblou. So the critical editions.
 The kai of the textus receptus, after thv polewv thv aliav is wanting in the critical editions.