Bookshelf/ Vol.I / Vol. IV. Part VI. Contents. Chapter I. 1. 2. 3. II. 1. 2. 3. III. 1. 2. 3. IV. 1. 2. V. 1. 2. Appendix I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. II. 1a. 1b. 2a. 2b. 2c. 3. 4. III 1. 2a. 2b.

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WE have been brought by our comparison of prophecy and history down to the eve of the seventh Vial in the one, and to near about the middle of the 19th Century in the other. I hope hereafter to take a brief review of the evidence on which we have advanced thus far in the parallelism. But even à priori to this, and on simply glancing back in the memory over the ground step by step trodden by us, we must, I think, see reason to rest upon the evidence, as what may well warrant us in our conclusions. And, supposing such to be the case, and that we have indeed satisfactorily made out our course thus far, then the question is further forced upon us by the extraordinary events of the year 1848, whether we may not have advanced yet a step further onward in the prophetic calendar of history; and these events have been the commencement of what was indicated by the figures of the seventh and last Apocalyptic Vial: - a Vial described as outpoured into the air; with an earthquake following which resulted in the final destruction of that great City, all preparatorily to the final destruction of that great City, and of its master the Beast, by fire and by the sword; - the judgment of burning, and judgment of blood, in the winepress-treading in Armageddon.

                I purpose soon to revert to this Vial-figuration, and the historic question above-stated connected with it. Let me however first, and in a preliminary Section, set before my readers what (upon the strength mainly of there being but one winepress-treading in the Apocalyptic prophecy) [1] I have been led to suppose a more succinct sketch of the same judgment in the supplemental predictive series of the Part without-written of the Apocalypse. We shall then have finished our review of that one grand division of the prophecy; and have nothing left behind unconsidered, to interrupt our progress in the fuller series within-written  of Apocalyptic prefiguration, onward to the end. [2]


      “And a third Angel followed them, saying with a loud voice; ‘If any man worship the Beast and his image, and receive his mark on his forehead, or on his hand, even he shall drink [3] of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture [4] into the cup of his anger; [5] and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone, in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the Beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.’

      “Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

      “And I heard a voice from heaven saying, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth! [6] Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; for their works [7] do follow them.

      “And I looked, and behold a white cloud: and upon the cloud One sitting like unto a son of man; [8] having on his head a golden crown, [9] and in his hand a sharp sickle. And another Angel came out of the temple, crying with a loud voice to him that sate on the cloud, Thrust in [10] thy sickle and reap: for the time is come for thee to reap: for the harvest of the earth is ripe. [11] And he that sate on the cloud thrust in [12] his sickle on the earth: and the earth was reaped.

      “And another Angel came out of the temple which is in heaven, he also having a sharp sickle. [13] And another Angel came out from the altar, which the fire; and cried with a loud voice to him that had the sickle, saying; Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth, for her grapes are fully ripe. And the Angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great wine-press of the wrath of God. And the wine-press was trodden without the city; and blood came out of the wine-press, even unto the horses’ bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs.” [14]

      In this primary and briefer sketch of the progress of events towards the consummation, - the same that I suppose to have been inscribed on the Part without-written of the Apocalyptic scroll, - there occur the four several symbolic figurations and notices following.

      1st then, - and next after that second flying Angel, whose voice, as noted shortly since, we seem already to have heard begun in the Church, triumphing over Papal Rome as fallen by reason of its corruptions, - St. John beheld in vision a third Angel flying abroad in mid-heaven, in the wake of the former two; with not only a warning voice against worshipping the Beast and his image, but a declaration also of the impending end of such worshippers, as doomed to drink of the bitter wine [15] of the wrath of God, and to be tormented with fire and sulphur before the holy angels and the Lamb; the smoke of which torment would ascend up for ever. - a prefiguration which seems to me to require, in order to its fulfillment, 1st a sufficiently general agreement among Christ’s faithful Protestant servants, as to what is meant both by the Beast and the Beast’s Image, to give weight to the judgment hence denounced against their worshippers: 2ndly, a general and strong impression among them, as to the punishment of such as might worship or obey the one, and the other, being a punishment by fire, and that as imminent as terrible: 3rdly, a public and notorious outcry of warning to this effect throughout European Christendom, with its vast colonial dependencies. - And thus we are forced to regard the symbol as hitherto unfulfilled. [16] While there has been for some three centuries a very general agreement among Protestants on the sense of the Apocalyptic Babylon as signifying Papal Rome, and of the Beast as in some way or other signifying the Popedom, [17] (for the differences of opinion are here for the most part on lesser details,) [18] - on the meaning of the Beast’s Image opinions have not only greatly varied, but its popularly known solutions been one and all thus far most unsatisfactory. [19] The reader will long ere this have become acquainted with my own view of it, as signifying the General Councils of Papal Christendom, very chiefly the Council of Trent, and formed his judgment respecting it. Should this impress itself on the mind of the Christian public as clearly true, and together therewith, a sense of the imminent danger of deferring to Pope or Councils, as authorities co-ordinate with God’s own written word, such as to force a loud and general outcry of warning against it, then we may consider an important step of advance made towards the incipient fulfillment of the vision. [20] - It is easy to see the consistency of this clause in the present vision with what was indicated by that of the three spirits like frogs in the other series of visions. It is in “the Church,” and so in Church-Councils, that the living antitype to the Apocalyptic False Prophet (the third of those three unclean spirits) very specially seeks its countervail - [counteract] to the authority of the word of God. After then that such a deceiving spirit shall have come in like a flood, it might well be that a voice of opposing truth should be expressly raised against it.

      2. After this a voice from heaven was heard by St. John to follow, saying, “Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth; &c.” In which voice the words from henceforth blessed, or, as they may be rendered, from time near at hand, [21] referred to, I incline to think, and indicated, the near approach of the grand epoch of blessedness predicted in Scripture of departed saints: I mean the blessedness of their reward and joy at Christ’s coming. For it is the imminent nearness of a judgment according to works, in this case of reward, [22] that Apocalyptic analogy suggests as the intent of the accompanying phrase, “Their works follow them:” [23] even though the “rest from their labours,” spoken of, be construed to mean that of the grave, or the separate state; and not (which it might perhaps rather be) that which even yet remains for the people of God, [24] they are not to enter on until Christ’s “revelation in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God.” [25] On the which cheering truth the injunction, “Write this,“ implies apparently [26] that there will be some deep impression on the matter in the true Church of Christ, and urgent inculcation of it, at the time answering to the vision; an impression grounded on its own evidence, and confirmed by that of the context respecting the harvest and the vintage immediately following. Besides which it seems in this sense well to agree with the tenor of the voice heard synchronically from heaven just before the seventh vial’s judgment by fire on Babylon, in the other series of visions; “Behold I come quickly; blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments.” - It cannot surely figure a revelation of the peaceful rest of Christ’s saints from immediately after death, in intended opposition to the Romish purgatorial doctrine, so as some have explained it. [27] In that case the phrase used would rather have been, “Blessed are they that die in the Lord, and dying saints from the time of their dying: not “from henceforth,” so as to make it date from a time subsequent to the date of the voice in vision. Nor, again, can it well mean, so as certain other expositors have imagined, simply that persecution would be at the time figured so severe, or coming judgments so fearful, as to make death a happy refuge from them. [28] Where then the distinctive appropriateness of the voice at this point in the prophecy? For, although doubtless another notice, just previously given, did intimate that the æra prefigured is to be eminently one of trial both to the faith and the patience of Christ’s true saints, and one to show very notably whether they will keep, as their one rule of action, “the commands of God,” and of doctrine “the faith of Jesus,” yet many such times of trial had been prefigured as coming before. - It may be added that, on the view here advocated of the heavenly intimation, it would seem almost to imply a general settlement of the minds of the faithful at the time figured on the great premillennial question. For how could the saints’ blessedness and reward be viewed as imminent, if a millennium of the spiritual evangelization of the world were expected to precede it?

      3. Next appeared a symbolization of what is called the harvest of the earth; a harvest followed immediately by what is designated as its vintage. So the type of things natural is here used, as often elsewhere also, in the figuration of things spiritual: - the same succession and order characterizing these providential ingatherings of the mystical earth’s fruits, which characterized the natural ingatherings in the land of Israel. [29]

      But what the nature of the harvest figured? Was it one of mercy or of judgment? of the good, or of the bad? On this point commentators differ: the majority of the modern English expositors taking it, I believe, in the former view; [30] the majority of the earlier Protestant interpreters, and of those too of the more modern German school, taking it in the latter. [31] The symbol, we must observe, is of itself indeterminate. In our Lord’s notable parable, - the same which ends with the explanatory statement, “The harvest is the end of the world, (or age, aiwnov,) the reapers are the angels,” [32] - there is described a two-fold produce, of wheat and of tares, as alike grown up in the harvest-field; and a two-fold reaping correspondent, of judgment and of reward, the former, it would seem, to precede the latter: “Gather ye together first  the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them; but gather the wheat into my barn.” Similarly St. Paul speaks of men reaping at the last what they sow, in two different kinds of harvest: “He that soweth to the flesh shall of the flesh reap destruction (fqoran); but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting.” [33] Thus the circumstance of our Lord’s having on one occasion spoken, in altogether a good sense, of “the fields being white unto harvest,” [34] - with reference however, not to men’s perfected state, but only for gathering into his kingdom in its preparatory earthly state, - and again that of his having said in St. Mark respecting the good seed of the kingdom,” When the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come,” [35] cannot decide the present question. In these two passages it is the context which determines the nature of the seed, and of the harvest. And it is similarly from the context of the present passage that we must decide the nature of the harvest here intended.

      And, after considering this, I find myself forced to view the harvest as one of judgment. 1st. the circumstance of its being called the harvest of the earth [36] strikingly points to this conclusion: the term earth being always, as Jerome observes, used in the Apocalypse in a bad sense; [37] and the saints noted in it as not of an earthly citizenship, but heavenly. [38] - 2. To the same effect is the designation of the reaping sickle as a sharp one. For the Apocalypse is a book peculiarly select in its epithets: and surely this would be a strange epithet to designate a gathering painless and most blessed, such as Enoch’s and Elijah’s, of the then living saints to their heavenly home. [39] - 3. The dried state of the produce at the time when the sickle is put in to cut it, “Thrust in thy sickle and reap; for the time is come for thee to reap, for the harvest of the earth is dried up,” (so it is in the original,) [40] - forbids the idea of its being a harvest of wheat, or other good produce. Does the agriculturist wait his corn being dried up before reaping it? Alike sacred and profane writers, the ancient and the modern husbandry, rule the thing otherwise. [41]

Thus the lexicographer infers from the simple word exhranqh, especially considering its use in that sense in the Septuagint, that a harvest of judgment is here intended. [42] - 4. Nor is such a use of the harvest-emblem unknown in other prophecies. [43] Especially in the only parallel one where the symbols of harvest and vintage are conjointly used, in symbolization of the events of the great consummation, viz. in Joel iii. 13, there cannot be a doubt, I conceive, as to the one, as well as the other, being symbols of judgment. “Let the heathen be wakened, and come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat: for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about. Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down, for the press is full, the fats overflow; for their wickedness is great.” In fact it is scarcely possible to read this passage without an impression of its being the actual original of the Apocalyptic imagery of the harvest and the vintage; relating to the same events, and marking their character.

      Thus, on the whole, we may, I think, confidently conclude on the harvest of the earth here figured depicting the first grand act of the judgments of the consummation on Antichristendom; as the vintage was meant to signify the second. And, judging from what we find stated in the other series of Apocalyptic prophecy, and its two-fold distinction of the judgments of the consummation into one by fire on Babylon, and a second by fire and the sword on the Beast and his followers, I can scarcely hesitiate at identifying this harvest of the earth with the first-mentioned judgment of burning. [44] I am confirmed in this by the exhranqh, the dried up state of the figured harvest. For the dry and noxious weed is fit only for burning. [45] So Tichonius, “Aruit messis terræ, id est ad combustionem parata est.” [46] Let me add a very unintended comment from the cyclical Letter of a Roman Pope in the middle age; where he speaks of the harvest-field of Christendom appearing like a field grown over with weeds, “rather dried up in preparation for burning, than white in preparation for harvest.” [47] - If the earth itself have to suffer, as in the time of Noah, with its evil produce, what wonder? “The earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God: but that which beareth thorns and briars is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned.” [48]

      This main point of the vision settled, we need to be not long detained by its details. - It was one like a son of man, sitting on a while cloud, that appeared holding the sharp sickle of execution, and to whom the charge was transmitted from the inner temple, “Thrust in thy sickle, for the harvest of the earth is ripe.” And both his likeness to a son of man, [49] and the white lightning-cloud [50] his chariot, [51] concurred to point out the God-man, Christ Jesus, as the person intended. - Yet not so as to indicate this being the occasion of his great predicted second advent with the clouds of heaven, when every eye shall see him. We must remember that the visibility of Christ to the Evangelist, here in vision, no more shows that he would be personally visible at the time and in the events so foreshown, than his appearance in an earlier part of the Apocalyptic visions robed in a cloud, and with his face shining as the sun; [52] which, we saw reason to believe, symbolized the spiritual discovery of his gospel-grace and salvation at the Reformation. I conceive it was intended to designate Christ as the great initiator of the final judgments, just as the subsequent notice of his treading the wine-press [53] marked him out as their completor; agreeably with his own declaration, “The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son.” [54] - The golden crown that he wore, implied his having come forth in the character of a conquering warrior over his enemies: [55] - so is each symbol of power, at first attached to the world’s potentates, now transferred in the figuration to their rightful owner. [56] - As to the Angel’s cry to him from out the sanctuary of the divine presence, declaring the time of the harvest-judgment to have fully come, [57] it well illustrates another of Christ’s sayings, in his prophecy of the judgments attendant on the second advent. “Of that day and hour knoweth no one; no, not the Angels that are in heaven, nor the Son: [i.e. not in his human character, as a son of man:] but the Father only.” (Mark xiii. 32.)

      So he that sat on the cloud cast down his sharp sickle upon the earth; and the earth was reaped.

      4thly, - and as the ending of the outside of the Apocalyptic scroll, (if my view of the writing-without be correct,) - there followed a figuration of the earth’s vintage and winepress-treading, [58] in indication of judgment unto blood, as all, very dreadful: this being the last judgment visible upon the earthly scene (as the vintage was the last natural gathering) against apostate Christendom.

      The vine to be gathered was called “the vine of the earth:” and designated, I amagine, first and chiefly, the ecclesiastical body and church of Antichristendom; inclusive, however, of its chief secular supporters also. [59] - Like as of ancient Judah, so of Christendom it might have been said, “I planted thee a noble vine, wholly a right seed; how then art thou turned into the degenerate plant of a strange vine unto me?” [60] For too soon, notwithstanding all its privilges, the Christian church and people apostatized; “their vine degenerating into the vine of Sodom, their grapes becoming grapes of gall, their clusters bitter, and their wine the poison of dragons.” [61] For a greatly-protracted period the long-suffering of God was foreshown as bearing with it. But now that period was over; its clusters were more than ripe; and its fated time of punishment, like that of the Jewish vine long before it, [62] fully come. - The agent in the preliminary act of gathering the vine’s clusters appeared in the vision to be an Angel with a sharp sickle or pruninghook in hand, issuing forth from the inner temple in heaven. By his egress thence the divine origin of the coming judgment was intimated, just as in the previous cases of the judgments under the Trumpets and the Vials; [63] by the sharpness of the sickle, the severity of judgment intended. [64] - As to the Angel that had to announce to the one just mentioned the precise moment for his putting in the sickle of execution, (such is the division of offices among the angelic host in God’s providential government,) his description is remarkable both as being the one “that had authority over the fire” [65] (that is, the altar-fire,) and as appearing to come forth “from out of the altar.” [66] He answered evidently in the Apocalyptic temple of vision to those Levitical priests of the Jewish earthly temple, whose office it was to keep the sacred fire ever burning on the altar, in order to the

ADDENDUM, Vol. IV. p. 32.

In case of the reading kai being preferred to epi in verse 16, so that it shall read thus, “And the ten horns which thou sawest, and the Beast, these shall hate the Harlot,” &c., the passage from Gregorovins, cited in the Table of Corrigenda prefixed to this volume, will show the fulfillment to have been as exact, according to my undersanding of the prophecy, with that reading, as with the other. To which passage let there be added the following lines from Pope, in his Poem on “the Medal,” to precisely the same effect:-

“See the wild waste of all-devouring years;

How Rome her own sad sepulchre appaers:

With nodding arches, broken temples, spread,

The very tombs now vanished like their dead!

Inperial wonders! . . . .

Some felt the silent stroke of mouldering age,

Some hostile fury, some religious rage.

Barbarian blindness, Christian zeal conspire;

And Papal piety, and Gothic fire.”

[Editor: Continued from above: -

consumption of the daily holocausts and of the voluntary burnt-offerings and peace-offerings; as also to look to the ashes left from the burning, [67] and which had dropt into the grate beneath the altar. [68] Thus his bearing part in the prefigured judgment might seem to indicate two things respecting it. 1st, it indicated that it was as a sacrifice to the divine justice that the vine was to be gathered, and its clusters trod in the wine-press; very much as in a famous, and probably not uncorrespondent, prophecy of Ezekiel, [69] as well as in that of Apoc. xix. 17, and others also: [70] - the heaven-derived altar-fire being the perpetual visible symbol among the Jews of God’s justice; [71] and of its preparedness to consume all except those that might have made a covenant with Him in his own appointed way by sacrifice, [72] and, through faith in the substituted offering of the Lamb of God, saved themselves. 2ndly, it pointed to one special cause of God’s wrath against the earth’s inhabitants, - namely, their slaughter of the martyrs; whose ashes, as of acceptable self-devoted holocausts, mixed with those of the great propitiatory burnt-offering, had long been accumulating (under the Angel’s charge, it is to be supposed) beneath the Apocalyptic altar. Already early in the drama a voice had been heard by St. John from the souls of witnesses slain for Christ beneath the altar, “Lord, how long dost thou not avenge our blood on those that dwell on the earth:” and it was then said that they were to wait for this avenging, till a second and additional band of martyrs had been completed in number, besides themselves. [73] As late as the third Vial a cry from the same point indicated, that not the full predicted vengeance, but only a preliminary judgment, had then begun. [74] Now, however, (and perhaps with some last notable act of martyrdom marking the epoch,) the cry of this Angel issuing forth from the interior of, or hollow beneath, the altar, proclaimed that their number was completed, - their moment of full avenging come; - the asserted power of the two witnesses to bring down fire from heaven against their injurers, to consume them, [75] about to be fearfully illustrated before the world; - and the earth to disclose her blood, and no more cover her slain. [76]

      As to the remaining particulars of the figuration we may observe, in passing that the gathering of the vine’s clusters by the Angel’s sharp pruning-hook, and the casting them into the wine-press of the wrath of God, seemed to indicate acts preparatory to the winepress-treading: [77] the former perhaps meaning some signal separation, by sharp judgments, of Antichrist’s members from those of Christ; the latter, the over-ruling of their own wicked wills, [78] and of the plans of the evil spirits animating them, [79] to accomplish the gathering of the antichristian body to the fated field of vengeance. - What the locality of that field we may perhaps better conjecture after comparing some other prophecies; so as will be done at the end of the Chapter on Daniel next following. Two things seem clear about it:- 1st, that the locale of the winepress-treading can scarce be different from the Armageddon of the other series of Apocalyptic prophecy: - 2nd, that its description here as “without the city,” (a figure in itself very appropriate, let me observe, as both the king’s and other wine-presses of old were actually situated outside the walls of Jerusalem, [80] ) is a characteristic that agrees well with what is said in Apoc. xix. of the Beast and his adherents being slain by Christ after the destruction of Babylon, the great city, and consequently away from it. - As to the inference drawn by many commentators from the circumstance of blood being said to flow out from this wine-press for 1600 furlongs up to the horses’ bridles, and the fact that 1600 furlongs is also about the length of the Holy Land, from Dan to Beersheba, [81] - I say as to their inference from these premises to the effect of the whole length of that Holy Land being the destined field of slaughter, [82] it seems to me hardly warranted by the prophetic language. For the number 1600 is, as sundry patristic as well as other expositors have observed, a square number. [83] And both the circumstance of winevats, - square it might be, or of other shape, - dug in the earth or rock, being a usual appendage of the agricultureal winepress, [84] and that of their being expressly mentioned in the parallel figurative prophecy of Joel, (“Come, get you down, for the press [85] is full, the fats [86] overflow, for their wickedness is great,”) concur to make it probable that in the Apocalyptic picture this appendage of the winevat was not wanting, and that the 1600 furlongs expressed its square. [87] Supposing which to be the case, the depth of blood mentioned might be that in the winevat; - a uniform depth, and one gauged easily, and as usual: whereas, on the hypothesis of a stream of 1600 furlongs in length, it is hard to conceive how the depth should not vary, but be still up to the horses’ bridles throughout the length of the 1600 furlongs. Indeed I doubt the words admitting that sense. [88] - What the square intended, if such it be, is a little dubious. If we take the number 1600 as the square of 40, then the area will be one of 5 miles to a side, equal to 25 square miles. [89] If, on the other hand, the 1600 furlongs be explained to give the circuit of the square, 400 to each side, [90] - then the square area will be vastly greater, being one, not of 5 miles to each side, but 50. Even on the smaller scale the figure would indicate tremendous slaughter. [91] - Its executor we are told in another Apocalypic prophecy is to be the WORD OF GOD, the LORD JESUS. For He it is that is there described as treading the winepress of the wrath of God; [92] being the Omega, as well as Alpha, of the judgments of the consummation. With which other description of the great winepress-treading the present is connected not otherwise only, and by general resemblance of the main subject, but also by that singular standard of measure, “up to the horses’ bridles.” For it seems to indicate the presence of horses and horsemen, as visible in the prefiguration, on the scene of slaughter; the same fact that appears prominently also in the figurative picture of the winepress-treading described in Apoc. xix.: this latter being executed upon “them that sate on horses,” among others, in the Beast’s army; [93] and by One who himself sat on a white horse, with saints attendant, on white horses likewise. [94]


      So ends the briefer sketch (as I presume it to be) of the æra and events of the seventh Vial, given to St. John in the rapid concluding evolution of the writing without on the Apocalyptic scroll: that same of which the chief object was a full supplementary figurative description of the BEAST FROM THE ABYSS; and so its notice of other subjects naturally more succinct. In resuming however the original within-written series of prefigurations a much fuller revelation was made of the same deeply interesting subjects; to the which fuller revelation we have now to turn.

[1] See my Vol. iii. pp. 330-332

[2] Except that there will need an examination into the prophecy in Dan. xi. xii. and one or two other Old Testament prophecies, in order to a comparison of the particulars intimated in those predictions respecting the events of the time of the end, with the prefigurations in the Apocalypse.

[3] kai autov pietai

[4] tou kikirasmenou akratou

[5] en ty pothriy thv orghv autou.

[6] Heinrichs and Tregelles stop thus; oi en kuriw apoqnhskontiv ap arti Nai, k. t. l. Wordsworth; . . apoqnhskontev Aparti nai, legei to Pneupa.

[7] ta gar erga autwn acolouqei uet autwn with gar, not kai

[8] omoion uew anqrwpou without the article, in all the manuscripts.

[9] stifanon crusoun

[10] pemyon literally send

[11] exhranqh, lit. dried

[12] Or, threw his sickle; ebalen

[13] drepanon, as before.

[14] apo stadiwn ciliwn exakowiwn to be observed on afterwards.

[15] kekerasmenou akratou mixt, unmixt: - unmixt in the sense (so Isa. i. 22) of undiluted; - mixed, as the wine sometimes given to criminals before execution, with sundry bitter ingredients. So Daubuz, p. 639: who compares (as does also Mede) Psalm lxxv. 8; “In the Lord’s hand is a cup, and the wine is red: it is full of mixture, (Sept. oinu? akpau? plhrev kerasmatov,) and He poureth out of the same: as to the dregs thereof all the wicked of the earth shall wring them out, and drink them.” Compare too Isa. xxix. 9, “They are drunken, but not with wine:” also Isa. li. 21, and Jer. xxv. 15; cited already in my Vol.. iii. p. 353, in illustration of the similar symbol in the Apocalyptic Vials.

[16] Written in 1844.

[17] From the time of the Reformation. Indeed the Waldenses so explained it before, as we saw, in their Treatise on Antichrist. See my Vol. ii. pp. 394-397

[18] Even they who interpret the Beast to mean the secular Roman empire, as Faber, Cuninghame, and Bickersteth, do yet so view that empire as animated and directed by the Papacy, that their interpretation virtually, and to all practical purposes, tends to the same point as that of those who with myself explain it, or its ruling head, of the line of Popes.

[19] So, as before noted, I wrote in my 1st Edition, published in 1844.

[20] The solution offered in the Horæ has, I have reason to know, approved itself to many minds, as it has become gradually known since its first publication. But, as I am revising my work for its 5th Edition in 1861, a conviction more general on this point seems to me to be still needed in order to help to this fulfillment.

It has gratified me, let me add, to learn, some long time after the first publication of my own solution, that the same substantially would seem to have been the view of the symbol taken by Sir I. Newton. In his chapter on Prophetic Language, p. 23, he says; “A council of a kingdom is signified by its image.” And in his brief Treatise on Apocalyptic Interpretation, he speaks of the Beast out of the earth, persuading men “to make an image of the Beast, that is, to assemble a body of men like him in point of religion.” What he adds about “its giving life to the Beast, so that it should both speak, and, by dictating, cause that all religious bodies of men who would not worship the authority of the image should be mystically killed,” throws, however, some obscurity over his meaning. - No objection to the solution worth mentioning has been suggested, so far as I know, by opponents.

[21] So Mede: comparing Matt. xxiii. 39; “From henceforth (ap a=rti) ye shall not see me,” &c.: i.e., not from the precise moment of his speaking, but from a time near it. There is, however, a certain difference in the senses of aparti, as indicative of time nearer or more distant. Compare Matt. xxvi. 29, 64, John i. 52, xiii. 19, xiv. 7. The statement Matt. xxvi. 64, Ap´ arti oyesqe ton ÆUion tu anqrwpu kaqhme non ek dexiwn thv dunamewv, is exprest in Luke xxii. 69 by, Apo tu nun epai o Uiov tu anqrwpu kaqhmenov.

[22] Compare, in the general anticipative description of the results of the 7th Trumpet given in Apoc. xi. 15-19, the clause, “and the time of the dead is come, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward to thy servants the prophets.”

[23] So in the case of Babylon, xviii. 5, it is said, “Her sins (hkolouqhsan) have followed up to heaven,” at an epoch when her destruction was imminent. Compare too Acts x. 4, “Thy prayers and alms have come up for a memorial before God;” said of Cornelius at the time when the answer of blessing was immediately about to be given.)

[24] Heb. iv. 9, &c.: where the word sabbatismov is used, as one parallel to katapausiv, used ib. 1, 3, &c.

[25] 2 Thess. i. 7; “To you that are troubled rest (anesin) with us, when,” &c.

[26] See Apoc. x. 4, and my comment.

[27] Newton, Scott, &c.

[28] So Hammond, comparing Is. lvii. 1, 2, “taken from the evil to come, he shall enter into peace, &c.” Compare too Jer. xxii. 10: “Weep not for the dead, neither bemoan him; but weep sore for him that goeth away; for he shall return no more, nor see his native country.”

[29] The barley harvest was finished at the Passover, when the sanctifying wave-sheaf was presented; the wheat harvest at Pentecost, when the first-fruits were offered; the vintage not until the Feast of Tabernacles, at the end of the ecclesiastical year, and of the crops. See Lev. xxiii. 10, 20, 39; Deut. xvi. 13.

[30] E.g. Mr. Cuninghame and Mr. Bickersteth. The former considers it as the gathering of such of his saints to Christ, on his coming in the air, as answer to the palm-bearers of chap. vii: for, if I rightly understand him, he has adopted the singular theory of two distinct translations of the saints alive at his advent. See his Work, pp. 261, 323. The latter (on Prophecy, p. 273) calls it “the harvest for glory,” in contradistinction to “the vintage of wrath.” - Mr. Cuninghame refers to Sir I. Newton and Bishop Horsley as agreeing in this view. Bishop Jebb too adopts it. On verses 15-18, he says: “Put in thy sickle to the corn of the just, and the vine of the unjust.” And so again Mr. Brooks, p. 236. Mr. Faber is an exception.

[31] E. g. of the former Mede, Vitringa, Bishop Newton: of the latter, Heinrichs, M. Stuart, &c. And so, long before Victorinus; who construes it, as well as the vintage, “de gentibus perituris in adventu Domini.” Daubuz, p. 646, advances the singular theory of the symbol signifying the separation of the good (i.e. good in profession) from the bad, at the Reformation.

[32] Matt. xiii. 39

[33] Gal vi. 8.

[34] John iv. 35.

[35] Mark iv. 29. See Note 7 below.

[36] d qerismov thv ghv

[37] See my Note 1 at p. 416 of Vol. i.

[38] So Apoc. xiii. 6, &c. - Compare Phil. iii. 20.

[39] Thus the epithet sharp is applied to the instrument spoken of presently after as used in the vintage, for a sickle of judgment. Daubuz (p. 646) allows that this its designation implies something violent and painful in the act done by it; and so explains it of the wars of the Reformation.

[40] exhranqh

[41] The Scriptural view of the time for cutting the corn, is given in two passages a little while since referred to: - the one John iv. 35, when the fields are said to have been “white unto the harvest;” the other, Mark iv. 29, where the harvest-time is said to have come, and the sickle to be immediately put in otan paradw o karwov, i.e. when the fruit hath put itself forth, as come to maturity. See Schleusner on paradedwmi. - Compare the application of the term dried to a plant in the sense of its being withered and dead, Matt. xiii. 6, where the Greek verb, rendered withered away in our authorized version, is as here exhranqh, dried up; and so too in James i. 11, 1 Pet. i. 24.

Of ancient classic writers I shall quote with Daubuz from Virgil and Columella. The former (Eclog. iv. 28) notes the time to be when “Molli paulatim flavescet camput arista:” where mark the molli, as well as the flavescet. The latter writes; “Æqualiter flavescentibus jam satis, antequam ex toto grana indurescant, cum rubicundum colorem traxerint, messis facienda est.” - And Pliny; “Oraculum biduo celorius messem faccro, potius quam biduo serius.” Nat. Hist. xviii. 30.

And so too the modern Agriculturists’ precept; “Do not let the corn become too ripe before you cut it.” I cite from Thorley’s Farmers Almanac. The stalk, it is said, should be white at top; but through the sap, still not wholly descended, retain still a measure of greenness below.

[42] “Ex multorum interpretum sententiâ per metaphoram innuitur ad pænam maturuisse adversarios religionis Christianæ, mensurâ peccutorum impletâ: quod eo magis verisimile est, quo magis constat xhrainesqai in versione Alex. de pernicie, interitu, et poenis divinis haud raro usurpari. Zach. x. 2, Is. xli. 17, xlii. 14, Amos ii. 9.” Schleusner on Xhrainw.

[43] E. g. Isa. xvii. 5, 11, (cited by Mede,) spoken of a harvest of judgment: and Jer. li. 33, with special reference to Babylon, “Yet a little while, and the time of her harvest is come.”

[44] Such is very much the view of Mede and Vitringa.

[45] Compare the Jewish proverb, “If they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?” Luke xxiii. 31: also John xv. 6, “It is cast forth as a branch, and is withered (exhranqh); and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.” Compare too the burning of “all that grew on the ground,” in the case of Sodom; Gen. xix. 25.

[46] Hom. xii. ad flu.

[47] “Agerque potius arescere videatur ad ignem, quàm albescere inveniatur ad messem.” Pope Gregory X’s Letter of convocation to the 2nd Lyons General Council. Hard. vii. 670.

So too, I see, Bernard, in his Letter to Pope Eugenius, ii. 6, De Consideratione; “Leva oculos, . . et vide regiones, si non sunt magis siccæ ad ignem, quam albæ ad messem.” - And somewhat similarly also Hermas, of old, in his 3rd. and 4th Similitudes.

[48] Heb. vi. 7, 8.

[49] Compare John v. 27, (“uiov - a man”)- Apoc. i. 13, “uiw anqorwpou - to a son of man”)where the article before son is also wanting.

[50] leukh niqelh. Compare the lxasv exastraptwn of Luke ix. 29.

[51] “He maketh the clouds his chariot;” Psalm civ. 3. Vitringa, p. 894, compares Isa. xix. 1, where the Lord is spoken of as riding on a swift cloud to execute judgment on Egypt. - See too my Vol. ii. p. 42, Note 2.

[52] Apoc. x. 1.

[53] Apoc. xix. 15.

[54] John v. 22 and 27. It is possible that this vision may also have allusion to Christ’s statement, in his memorable prophecy of the end of the world, Matt. xxiv 30; “And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven; and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn:” - i.e. if, as some think, the sign of his coming be something distinct from, and the immediate precursor of, his coming itself.

[55] Compare Isa. ix. 5; “For every battle of the warrior is with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire. For unto us a child is born, &c. And the government shall be on his shoulder:” &c.

[56] See Vol. i. p. 106. So too Apoc. xix. 12, in the other prophetic series, to be considered in the next Section of this Chapter.

[57] The circumstance of the harvest of wickedness having grown more than ripe, as the word exhranqh seems to indicate, marked the prolonged forbearance of God.

[58] With these two great judgments of the consummation, - that of the harvest and that of the vintage, - against apostate Christendom, we may compare the two consummatory acts of judgment against the Jews, whereby their total subversion as a nation was effected: viz. 1st, the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus; 2nd, the tremendous slaughter of their armies and people, fifty years after, by Hadrian. In which latter, after the battle of Bittera, the Rabbins in the Codex Taanith of the Jerusalem Talmud, adopting, very remarkably, the Apocalyptic language here used, say that “blood flowed up to the horses’ noses for 1600 stadia.” Vitringa, p. 902, quotes this from Lightfoot.

[59] So the Jewish vine signified, I conceive, the Jewish nation as a church, and with church privileges. See the figure in Isa. v.

[60] Jer. ii. 21 - Just before, Judah had been represented by the prophet as an unfaithful wife. So that there is a similar variety of images to figure Judah’s apostasy there, with what we find to figure Christendom’s apostasy here; - in one place as a harlot, in another as a corrupt vine.

[61] Deut. xxxii. 32. Compare one of the Apocalyptic designations of Anti-christendom as “the great city which is spiritually called Sodom;” Apoc. xi. 8. Another represented its popular constituency as the nominal but apostate Israel; Apoc. vii. Dr. A. Clarke, in his remarks on the wild grapes in Isa. v. 2, observes, that in Palestine there were some fruits of the grape kind that were poisonous.

[62] Isa. v. 6. - In Matt. xxi. 33, &c., the figure is varied.

[63] Apoc. viii. 2, xv. 6.

[64] See what I have said on the reaper’ sharp sickle just before. - The word drepanon is used ancient authors as well for the instrument of pruning or cutting shrubs as for reaping. See Daubuz ad loc. p. 652; who quotes Aristides Quintilianus saying wv klhma drepany temein. Also Virgil Bucol. iv. “Non rastros patictur humus, non vinea falcem:” and Horace, Od. i. 31, “Premant Calenâ falce quibus dedit Fortuna vitem:” &c.

[65] ecwn exousian epi tou purov

[66] exhgqen ek tou qusiasthriou. Observe ek, not apo.

[67] Lev. vi. 9-13. - With regard to the altar-fire, (that which had originally fallen from heaven,) he had to supply it with wood every morning, that it might never go out. As regarded the ashes of wood, consumed with the burnt-offering, it was his direction first, and while in his linen garments, to put them beside the altar; then in other garments to carry them away to a clean place without the camp. - This was quite a different office from that alluded to in Apoc. viii. 3, (I beg attention to this point,) of receiving and offering incense.

[68] See Exod. xxvii. 3-5. Also my notice on the subject in the Appendix to Vol. ii. pp. 513, 514.

[69] Ezek. xxxix. 17.

[70] E. g. Isa. xxxiv. 6. In Apoc. xix. 17, the image is that of a supper. But the banquet and the sacrifice were, as is well known, continually united; both in the Jewish religious rites, and in those too of the heathen. - Daubuz observes on the frequent application of sacrificial words, such as quw, macto, &c., to the slaughter of enemies: e. g. by Virgil, “Pallas te hoc vulnere, Pallas, immolat:” also how in some cases, as in that of the slaughter of the Midianite by Phinehas (Numb. xxv. 13), it was accepted as a propitiatory offering

Let me add in Illustration Jer. xxv. 30; where, after notice of the wine-cup of God’s fury being given to the nations, it is said, “The Lord shall roar from his holy habitation; . . he shall give a shout, as they that tread the grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth.”

[71] See the observations, including Note 2, at p. 215 of my 3rd Volume.

[72] Psalm l. 5.

[73] Apoc. vi. 11. See Vol. i. p. 227, &c.

[74] Apoc. xvi. 7: where, as before remarked, the text of the best critical editions reads, hkousa tou qusiasthriou legontov, implying a voice from within or underneath the altar; especially as compared with the phraseology here used of the Angel, exhlqen ek tou qusiasthriou. See my Vol. iii. p. 388.

[75] Apoc. xi. 5. See Vol. ii. pp. 212-214.

[76] Isa. xxvi. 21.

[77] So Daubuz, p. 659, and others.

[78] Compare Acts ii. 23; “Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken;” &c.

[79] I mean the three spirits like frogs, that gathered the kings of the earth to Armageddon. Apoc. xvi. 14, 16.

[80] So Doubuz, p. 662. In Zechariah’s prophetic description of the re-habitation of Jerusalem in its fullest ancient extent, it is said, “The land shall be inhabited from the tower of Hananeel to the king’s winepresses.” Zech. xiv. 10. Which phrase is explained by Kimchi (M‘Caul’s Translation, p. 185) as if including the threshing-floor as well as the winepress.

[81] Noted by Jerome ad Dardan. Pliny makes the length of Palestine to be 189 miles. Nat. Hist. v. 13. So Daubuz, p. 664.

[82] So Fuller in his Pisgah; also Faber and others, after him. - Daubuz adopts their view as to its being the measure of Palestine; but applies it figuratively, as signifying the length of the mystical apostate Israel; i.e. the whole territorial extent of Papal Christendom. - Mede suggests the fact of 1600 stadia being also the length of the States of the Church in Italy, from Rome to Verona. [Editor: emphasis mine!]

[83] “Quadratum satis amplum.” So Vitringa, p. 902, after the old interpreters Victorinus, Tichonius, Primasius.

[84] On Isa. v. 2, “He made a winepress in it,” or rather winefat, Hebr. bq,y,,, it is observed by Dr. A. Clarke that the Septuagint rendering of the word is here prolhnion, but in four other places more properly upolhnion; viz. Isa. xvi. 10, Joel iii. 13, Hab. ii. 16, and Zech. xiv. 10. The winepress itself, he says, (in Latin the torcular or calcatorium) is in Hebr. called hr;Wp. Near it was the lacus: (Columella xii. 18. 3, Ovid. Fast. iv. 888:) a large open place, or vessel, which by a conduit received the sweet, mustum, or blood of the grape, from the winepress; and which in her countries was often dug under ground, or out of the rock, for coolness, that the heat might not cause too great a fermentation on it.

So too Burmaun De Vectigal. 16, in reference to Ovid’s line, “Praemia de lacubus proxima musta tuis.” And let me refer to the Scripture Expositors, Patrick, on Lev. xxiii. 39, with regard to the vintage and winepress at the Feast of Tabernacles, and Bishop Lowth on Isa. v. 2.

[85] tG"

[86] bq,y,

[87] The Greek word lhnov, which is used here, alike in verses 19 and 20, is a word applied in either sense; that is, both to signify the winepress and the winevat. See Schleusner on the words lhnov and upolhnion.

[88] The expression in the original is exhlqen aima ik thv lhnou acri twn calinwn twn ippwn apo atadiwn c ehiwn ixakosiwn. And the parallel passage adduced to justify this use of the apo is John xi. 18; “Bethany was nigh Jerusalem, wv apo otadewn dekapente, about fifteen furlongs off.” To which we may add John xxi. 8; and also Arrian; Uperkeitai de authv aro trewn hmerwn polev Sauh, kai met allav ennea hmerav Afar: &c., But this is the distance of an extreme point. And, were the analogy of these passages followed, the rendering here would be. “At the distance of 1600 stadia from the sinepress the blood was up to the horses’ bridles:“ - in which case how much deeper must it have been at the winepress itself!

[89] This idea of the square I have not seen elsewhere. And I ought to offer some parallel passage to justify it; - some one where a numeral of measure, without the word square added, does yet mean square measure: which however I cannot recollect.

[90] So the old expositors mentioned, as before observed, by Vitringa. “Quater enim quadringenta,” it is said, “efficiuat 1600.” Hengstenberg supposes the winevat to have been round, and 1600 stadia the length of the circumference. But that was not, I believe, so usual a form as the square.

[91] It would be a winefat [Editor: The word may be winevat] of the size of ancient Rome or modern London.

[92] Apoc. xix. 15.

[93] Ib. 18; “that ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, . . and of horses, and of them that sit on them.”

[94] Ib. 11, 14.