SOLAR MEASURES OF THE SEVEN TIMES.
If now, from the same two limits of the captivity era, we measure "seven times" on the full solar scale,
B.C. 747 "seven times" solar AD. 1774
B.C. 557 "seven times" solar A.D. 1934
we are led to the year A.D. 1774, and to the yet future year, A.D. 1934. That future date is the year in which the seven times will terminate on the longest scale, from the latest starting-point, and it is therefore likely to bear to the other critical years of the "time of the end" about the same proportionate importance as the last stage of the fall of Judah, under Zedekiah, bore to the earlier stages. That last stage was not the crisis, but an after-wave of the Babylonian overthrow, the great crisis of which had come eleven years previously. But of this we will speak more particularly in a subsequent section, as, avoiding final stages and future dates, we are here dealing only with preliminary stages and past dates; that is, with matter of absolute historic certainty, not with anything in the slightest degree speculative or uncertain. We are planting our feet at every step on the terra firma of unquestionable fact.
For the present then we consider only the first of these two terminal dates, AD. 1774, a date removed by 2,520 full solar years from the era of Nabonassar, B.C.
To what crisis did this first full termination of the "seven times" lead? To the great crisis which is, by the common consent of all historians, regarded as the beginning of a new era in the history of European Christendom,-to the commencement of the era of retribution on the great Roman apostasy and its head, the Papacy-to the era of THE FRENCH REVOLUTION- to the year 1774, which was that of the accession of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette. The French Revolution had three stages: the preparatory stage, in which deistical and infidel doctrines were made the basis of widespread attacks on religious faith and existing political institutions; the actual Revolution, which overthrew Church and State, society and religion, loyalty, nobility, clergy, laws, customs, institutions,-everything that had previously existed in France; and lastly the Napoleonic stage, which, after a series of aggressive wars, which upset every kingdom in Europe, dethroned the pope and five other monarchs, created eight new ones, carried captive two Roman pontiffs, incorporated Rome in the French empire, and ended by subjecting France to a tyranny more complete than that from which it had liberated the country in the beginning. The whole movement may be said to have extended from Voltaire to Waterloo; but the accession of Louis XVI. (A.D. 1774), the accession of the monarch who lost his crown and life in the crisis of the Revolution, may be regarded as the initial date of the central part of the movement. Just as in the captivity era, the accession of Nabonassar, the first king of Babylon, and not that of Nebuchadnezzar, the king under whom Babylon reached the climax of its glory and the height of its power, is the starting-point, so here; not the climax of the Revolution which was to overthrow the Papal Babylon, but the accession of the monarch in whose reign it took place, is the first point to which we are led. Alison begins his history of the French Revolution with this year
In THE EAST this same year brought another well marked stage in the fall of Turkey: a disastrous Russian war, closed by the fatal and humiliating TREATY OF KAINARDJE, of which we have spoken elsewhere.
Thus in the West "seven times" solar lead to the French, as "seven times" lunar led to the English Revolution, both stages of Papal overthrow, though of widely different character; while in the East "seven times" solar lead to Kainardje, as "seven times" lunar led to Carlowitz-names which sound like death-knells in the ears of Turkish statesmen.
We may add that the previous year, 1773, witnessed the abolition of the order of the Jesuits by Pope Clement XIV., who was forced to issue a bull for the purpose, though well aware it would cost him his life, and endanger the stability of the Papal throne, of which the order had long been a mainstay. The French Revolution and the Treaty of Kainardje mark the full solar commencement of "the time of the end."
To the "seven times" prophecy adds its own epact, seventy-five years, or the difference between 2,520 lunar years and the same number of solar years. This it adds in two portions, thirty years, and forty-five years. [Dan. xii. 11, 12.] It does not distinctly intimate the nature of the terminal event of these added seventy-five years, further than that they will bring the time of full blessedness. This supplementary period seems to have a special connexion with Palestine and the Jews, Daniels people, and is chiefly to be dated from a later point. But just as the oft repeated 1,260 years, or three and a half times," measure, as a matter of fact, other series of events than those to which they are in Scripture especially applied, so these seventy-five years can be traced from this 1774 terminus as leading to further stages of Papal decline and fall. Thus "seven times" from the earliest Nabonassar date, plus its own epact, which is seventy-five years-divided as the prophecy divides it, into two sections, the first of thirty, and the second of forty- five years, reach down to the critical years A.D. 1804 and 1848-9. Thus:
1774 + 30 years. = 1804 + 45 years. = 1849
What were these years? A.D. 1804 was that of the coronation of Napoleon as emperor; and this acme of the glory of the military hero of the Revolution was also a stage of the deepest degradation to the Pope of Rome. The emperor commanded Pius VII. to attend the ceremony, obliging the old man to cross the Alps in mid winter, not to confer a crown, but merely to adorn a ceremony. Napoleon himself placed the crown on his own head, and the pope, who used to claim that by him kings ruled and princes decreed judgment, stood by, a purposely slighted and insulted witness. Later on Napoleon forced this same pope at Fontainebleau, where he had kept him for some time captive, to sign a concordat, by which he renounced his temporal authority and all claim to Rome for ever, and agreed to reside in France in future, as a salaried servant of the emperor! This agreement did not of course stand after the fall of Napoleon, but it was a fatal precedent for the Papacy.
In 1849 again the pope had to flee from Rome; driven away this time, not by foreign enemies, but by his own subjects, who could endure no longer the terrible maladministration of the priestly government, which had so long eaten like a cancer into the vitals of Rome and the States of the Church. Pius IX. was deposed, his prime minister was killed, and an Italian republic proclaimed, under Mazzini. The violent revolutions which shook nearly every throne in Europe during this year 1848 seemed like the result of some tremendous anti-Papal earthquake. A mere catalogue of its events sufficiently attests the curiously critical character of the year, which is often called the year of European revolutions.
[The year of 1848 witnessed the French Revolution, which culminated in the abdication of Louis Philippe on February 24th. A republic was proclaimed from the steps of the hotel de Yule, on February 26th, and on May 26th the perpetual banishment of Louis Philippe was decreed. In June, Louis Napoleon was elected to the National Assembly, and in the same month occurred the rise of the red republicans, the war with the troops, the 300 barricades; Paris also was in a state of siege. The national losses were 30,000,000 francs, 16,000 persons killed and wounded, and 8,000 prisoners taken. Louis Napoleon was proclaimed president of the French Republic in December of the same year. The revolution broke out in Paris on February 23rd, and "before March 5th every country lying between the Atlantic and the Vistula had, in a greater or less degree, been revolutionised." A little more than a fortnight after the fall of Louis Philippe a revolution took place in Rome, leading to the expulsion of the Jesuits, the assassination of the prime minister and Cardinal Palma; a constitution was proclaimed, and in November the pope fled to Gaeta, where an asylum had been provided for him by the king of Naples; in February of the following year the pope was formally deposed from his temporal authority, and a republic was proclaimed..
This year 1848 also witnessed a revolt in Palermo and in the eastern provinces of Lombardy, a revolution in the two Sicilies leading to the proclamation of a constitution; a similar change in Sardinia and in Tuscany; the overthrow of the Duchy of Parma; a revolution in Venice; another at Milan; the annexation of Lombardy to Piedmont; the revolt of the peasantry in Cephalonia; tumults in Vienna, involving the flight of Metternich, and the granting of a constitution by the Emperor Ferdinand, and subsequently his resignation of the crown to his nephew Francis Joseph; the king of Bavaria abdicated in favour of his son Maximilian; an insurrection at Prague on June 12th, and at Berlin on the 14th; riots and revolution in Hungary, leading to the investment of Kossuth with dictatorial powers.
Schleswig Holstein threw off the yoke and declared its own independence; the king of Holland had to revise the constitution; Cabrera was in arms in Spain; and in our country chartist riots were an unsuccessful attempt at insurrections; while the state of things in Ireland was such that the Habeas Corpus Act had to be suspended, and numbers of men tried for high treason. Thus during the course of this one year the whole of Europe was, in a way which is unique in history, shaken by the repeated throes of a great political earthquake, which crumbled into dust the old despotic monarchies, introducing in their stead constitutional governments.]
But, it will be objected, none of these events, even though reaching to the close of the added seventy-five years, are terminal; the Papacy was restored again even after 1848. True; and this is precisely what should be expected; we are measuring still only from the very earliest date of the captivity era. If we want to reach the terminus of "the time of the end," the full and final fall of Babylon, we must calculate from the latest date, or at any rate from the date of the culmination of Babylonian power in the days of Nebuchadnezzar.
This we will do farther on; but in the meantime we must measure the " seven times" from the intermediate dates of the captivity era, the conquests of Shalmaneser, Sennacherib, and Esarhaddon.
The SECOND commencing date is that of the first overthrow of the ten tribes, B.C. 723, the year which witnessed the siege of Samaria by Shalmaneser.
B.C. 723 "seven times" solar A.D. 1798
This terminus, if our system is well founded, ought to lead to a more marked stage of the overthrow of the Papacy, in connexion with the French Revolution. It is only needful to turn to Alison, or any other historian of the period, to see that it did so.
"The object of the French directory (in 1798) was the destruction of the pontifical government, as the irreconcilable enemy of the Republic. They urged their general to drive the pope and cardinals out of Rome. Buonaparte proposed to give the Eternal City to the king of Spain, on condition of his recognising the French Republic. Failing in this he resorted to a system of pillage, which exhausted its resources, and finally a democratic demonstration was got up at Rome in the accustomed manner, in which one of the French envoys was killed by the fire of the pontifical troops. This misfortune afforded the desired pretext. The French army, pouring in under Berthier, planted the tricolour on the Capitol, while their Roman confederates, displaying the famous insignia, S.P.Q.R., shouted for liberty. The aged pope was summoned to surrender the temporal government; on his refusal he was dragged from the altar, end the soldiers plundered the Vatican in the presence of its owner. They stripped his own chamber; when he asked to be left to die in peace, he was brutally answered that any place would serve to die in. His rings were torn from off his fingers, and finally, after declaring the temporal power abolished, the victors carried the pope prisoner into Tuscany, whence he never returned.
"The Papal States, converted into the Roman Republic, were declared to be in perpetual alliance with France; but the French general was the real master at Rome. The citizens groaned under his terrible exactions. Churches, convents, palaces, were stripped to the bare walls. The works of art were nearly all carried off. The territorial possessions of the clergy and monks were declared national property, and the former owners cast into prison. The Papacy was extinct; not a vestige of its existence remained; and among all the Roman Catholic powers, not a finger was stirred in its defence. The Eternal City had no longer prince or pontiff; its bishop was a dying captive in foreign lands; and the decree was already announced, that no successor would be allowed in his place."
From the year when these scenes of judgment were enacted in Rome "seven times" carry us back to the year of the invasion and ravages of Shalmaneser, the proud monarch of Assyria. Is this accident or design?
The THIRD critical date of the captivity era was, as we have seen, that of the invasion of Sennacherib. This was a question of four or five years, as his ravages of the land of Israel, and subsequently of that of Judah, were extended over several campaigns, from B.C. 713 to B.C. 708.
If now from these four or five years of the military ravages of Sennacherib we measure "seven times," to what corresponding events in the time of the end are we led?
B.C. 713-8 "seven times" solar A.D. 1808-12
To the campaigns of the European prototype of Sennacherib, the modern scourge and destroyer of nations, Napoleon Buonaparte, employed by the hand of Providence as leader of the infidel host of revolutionary France against the Papal nations,-to the years in which he carried rapine and slaughter into all the kingdoms of Europe.
This is surely a most remarkable coincidence! The awful devastating and destructive wars of Napoleon, between 1808 and 1812, terminated in a catastrophe not unlike the one which befell the host of Sennacherib, by the loss of an army twice as numerous among the snows of Russia. Out of nearly half a million of men whom he took over the Niemen, only about three thousand returned to recross that stream! In the course of the years from 1804-1814 no less than ten millions of men-a number absolutely inconceivable by the mind-fell on both sides in these wars, the money cost of which was besides incalculable, and the effects of which have never been recovered by France.
Both Sennacherib and Napoleon were in the zenith of their power and glory when they started on these campaigns which ended so fatally. Sennacheribs ravages formed a marked stage in the fall of Judah, which, though spared at the time, never recovered the shock, and Napoleons campaigns were a most marked stage in that course of events which is bringing about the restoration of Judah and Israel in these days. It was under the strain produced by these wars that the naval power and vast colonial empire of Protestant England, and the enormous military power and Asiatic empire of Russia, were developed to their present marvellous expansion, while the Latin nations lost ground in proportion. The effect on the Jews we have already noted. The interval between the principal campaigns of these two great conquerors is precisely the great week, or "seven times "-2,520 years on the full solar scale.
The FOURTH critical date of the captivity era is the completion of the deportation of the ten tribes under Esarhaddon, B.C. 676. "Seven times" solar from this date lead to A.D. 1844, while "seven times" lunar from B.C. 602 (Nebuchadnezzar) terminate in the same date, A.D. 1844, and are bisected by the date of the Hegira, AD. 622.
B.C. 676 "seven times" solar A.D. 1844
B.C. 602 3« times lunar A.D. 622 3« times lunar A.D. 1844
In this case both the central and terminal dates are critical in connexion with that Mohammedan power which has for more than twelve centuries trodden down Jerusalem. The central one is that of the HEGIRA ERA itself, the date from which the entire Moslem world reckons to this day, as we do from Anno Domini; and the terminal date is that of the Hatti Hamayoun, or decree of religions toleration wrung by the Christian powers of Europe from the Ottoman Government. In 1844 the Porte was compelled, under threat of European interference, to issue this edict, abolishing for ever its characteristic and sanguinary practice of execution for the adoption of Christianity. This compulsory sheathing of its persecuting sword was a patent proof that its independence was gone, and a marked era in its overthrow. As the Mohammedans employ a strictly lunar year, A.D. 1844 is the 1260th in their calendar.
THE FIRST AND THE EIGHTH YEARS OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR are the remaining intermediate starting-points in the captivity era. In both these years he besieged and took Jerusalem, and in both he led large numbers of Jews captive to Babylon. The Jehoiakim stage took place in B.C. 606-5, and the more serious Jehoiachin stage in B.C. 598. This latter is probably the principal crisis in the whole captivity era, as we have before shown. Both years witnessed complete overthrows of Jewish power by Nebuchadnezzar, that singularly typical, self- exalting monarch, who stands as the express image of the Papal dynasty of these latter days. There were other monarchs of Babylon, but HE was the great and typical one. There were other destroyers of Jerusalem, but HE was the fated and final one. Sennacherib and Shalmaneser exalted themselves against God, and persecuted His people; but Nebuchadnezzar exceeded. He is represented as the great incarnation of human power and pride. It was he who made a great image of himself, and commanded the world to worship it, and heated the burning fiery furnace of persecution "seven times hotter than it was wont to be heated," for the torture and destruction of those who would not bow down to the idol he had made, or worship the image which he had set up. It was he who boasted in his pride, "Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the kingdom by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty?" It is he who was predicted as the destroyer of the city and temple of God, and against whose city of Babylon such tremendous judgments were denounced. In a word, it is he who is the great type of the terrible Papal antichrist of prophecy and history.
His campaigns consequently against Judah and Jerusalem are the specially important ones; and after the lapse of "seven times" from them, we are likely to reach the centre and crisis of Jewish restoration. From the date of his overthrow of the nation and desolation of the land, we may expect "seven times" to lead to the restoration of the people of Judah to their land; and from the date of his overthrow of the throne of Judah, we may expect "seven times" to lead to the restoration of that throne, in the person of the Son and Lord of David, the true King of the Jews; while, from his burning of the temple and breaking down of the wall of Jerusalem, we may expect "seven times" to lead to the rededication of the temple and city. Nebuchadnezzars three campaigns against Judah took place in the first, the eighth, and the nineteenth years of his reign, extending over a period of nineteen years. The dates of these campaigns were:
B.C. 606-5. Conquest of Jehoiakim. Loss of Jewish independence.
598. Overthrow of Jehoiachin. Fall of the throne of Judah.
587. Burning of the temple and complete destruction of Jerusalem in the days of Zedekiah.
From these three dates "seven times" run out on the solar, calendar, and lunar scales as follows:
seven times solar calendar lunar B.C. 606 A.D. 1840, 1878-9, 1915.
B.C. 598 A.D. 1848-9, 1887, 1923. B.C. 587 A.D. 1859-60, 1898, 1934.
Now it will be observed that the full solar termini from all these three dates are yet future, [ ie, on writing this before 1888. Ed.] and do not run out until the early part of next century. [ ie., 20th century. Ed.] Two of the three calendar are also future, though very near at hand; they will run out this century, and one of them in twelve years. Only the three lunar and one of the calendar termini are as yet past. We postpone any remark on the still, future dates, which we have included in brackets, to a closing section of this work.
As to those already past, " seven times" calendar from the first starting point brought the year 1878, the year of the Berlin Conference, which, with the war that preceded it, was beyond all question a very marked stage in the downfall of the Ottoman power,-a stage in that dismemberment of Turkey which is to end in the liberation of Palestine from its present oppressor.
By the Treaty of San Stefano a large portion of Armenia (Turkey in Asia) was ceded to Russia, the Drobudcha was lost to Turkey, the complete independence of Roumania was recognised, the limits of Servia and Montenegro were extended, and Bulgaria was erected into an autonomous Christian principality. The provisions of this treaty were subsequently modified at the Berlin Conference, which divided the province of Bulgaria, refusing independence to that portion of it south of the Balkans; an arrangement which was overthrown in 1885. The signature of the Treaty of Berlin was preceded by the Anglo-Turkish Convention, under which, in return for the cession of Cyprus to England -a further step in the dismemberment of Turkey-this country most unwisely undertook to defend the Turkish possessions in Asia, including the Holy Land, against Russian aggression, the Porte promising necessary reforms, subject to British approval. These reforms have, of course, never been effected.
The year 1878 was also that of the death of Pius IX., the last pope wielding temporal power.
It is also noteworthy that "seven times "calendar measured from B.C. 606, the first of Nebuchadnezzar, is like the "seven times" lunar from B.C. 578, his last overthrow of Judah, bisected by the Omar capture of Jerusalem.
"Seven times" calendar B.C. 606 A.D. 637 A.D. 1878-9
"Seven times" lunar B.C. 587 A.D. 637 A.D. 1859-60
Thus these two periods, though starting from different dates-the beginning and end of the nineteen years of Nebuchadnezzars overthrow of Jerusalem,-and reaching different termini by different scales, meet in this central date of the Omar capture of Jerusalem.
As to the briefer and earlier lunar termini of the "seven times" from the Nebuchadnezzar starting-points, they are all past, 1840, 1848, and 1859-60; and each of these years unquestionably witnessed stages of decay and fall either of the Papal or Mohammedan power or of both.
In A.D. 1840 Egypt was virtually lost to the Porte. Mehemet Ali, the wise, despotic, powerful, and warlike viceroy of the country, had been in rebellion against the sultan since 1831, when his forces invaded Syria, and he defeated the Turks in the decisive battle of Konieh (1832). He had been remarkably successful in his career, and with the help of his son Ibrahim had conquered Syria, Arabia, Candia, and a considerable part of Asia Minor. The Turkish fleet, which had been sent against him, was by treachery surrendered to him at Alexandria in 1839, and the empire of the Osmanlis seemed menaced with dismemberment, if not ruin. Under these circumstances, the powers of Europe intervened, and the British fleet took Sidon, Beyrout, and St. Jean dAcre. Mehemet Ali had to submit to their dictation, and surrender some of his conquests; but he obtained from the sultan the hereditary possession of Egypt and the life governorship of Syria as far as the north of the Lake of Tiberias. The treaty was signed in the month of July, 1840, and was a great stage in the dismemberment of Turkey, Egypt and Syria being two of her finest and most important provinces. Egypt has ever since been virtually independent, though nominally a vassal kingdom..
The second lunar terminus is the year 1848, of which we have already spoken in another connection; its importance in the movement we are considering, the fall of Papal and despotic power, is conspicuous. Such a year of revolution was probably never known in Europe before or since. So strange and unaccountable was the revolutionary fever which broke out in Christendom, that it attracted everywhere a marvelling attention. One nation caught it from another; the infection spread very rapidly, and produced a kind of political delirium; constitutional freedom was everywhere demanded, and everywhere granted. In many of these revolutionary movements emancipated Jews took a leading part: as, for instance, Fould, Crémieux, and Goudchaux in France, Pincherle in Vienna, Jacobi in Berlin, Riesser in Frankfort, Fischhof in Austria, and Freund in Hungary. ________________________________________________________________________________
DIAGRAM OF THE PERIODS OF "SEVEN TIMES" AND "THREE AND A HALF TIMES," TERMINATING IN A.D. 1848-9.
Nabonassar +30 years. +45 years. B.C. 747. + 2,520 years solar + 75 years. A.D. 1774. - 1804. - = 1848-9
Jehoiachin B.C. 598. + 2,520 years lunar. = 1849
A.D. 590. + 1,260 years solar. = 1849
A.D. 607. + 1,260 years calendar. = 1849
That this year was a great prophetic crisis may be gathered from the fact that four distinct periods terminate in it:
1. "Seven times" solar from the era of Nabonassar, with the added seventy-five years (Dan. xii. 11).
2. "Seven times " lunar from the Jehoiachin date.
3. "Time, times, and a half," or 1,260 solar years, from the bisection date of Gregory the Great.
4. The same period calendar from the bisection date of the pope-exalting decree of the Emperor Phocas.
We may add also that, dated from this critical year, seventy-five years more bring us to 1923, the full solar close from the principal date of the captivity era, that of Jehoiachin -the great Ezekiel starting-point.
Of the year 1860 we have already spoken fully, so need not here repeat its events. The three final Nebuchadnezzar dates of the captivity era give rise in the terminal era of the "time of the end" to nine years of crisis: three at the lunar, three at the calendar, and three at the full solar close of "seven times" from the three starting- points.
Of these nine we have now considered the four that are past, and have found, as we might have expected, that, being only imperfect lunar and calendar closes of the great period, the crises in the fall of Babylon the Great and Islam, to which they conduct us, have no character of finality about them. That is natural, and must be so, if the system we seek to unfold be the true one. The end is not yet; we must for it await the full solar close of "seven times" from these dates.