Interpreting the prophecies of Jesus in His "Olivet Discourse" in Matthew 24 and the synoptic (parallel) Gospels
These sermons on Mark 13 were delivered by Pastor Joe Haynes as part of a series entitled, "Meeting Jesus in Mark's Gospel" in December 2014-January 2015 at Beacon Communities.
These are more recent than the sermons previously listed here and show some changes over the past 7 years in Joe's understanding of the text in Matthew 24 and Mark 13.
- We Can't Hate Jesus Forever - Mark 13:1-13 (Nov 9, 2014)
- Why Didn't Jesus Save Jerusalem? - Mark 13:1-23 (Dec 28, 2014)
- How Past Knowledge of the Future Strengthens God's People in the Present - Mark 13:24-27 (Jan 4, 2015)
- How to Wait for the Second Coming of Christ - Mark 13:28-37 (Jan 18, 2015
Click on links in the text of Matthew 24 below to view commentary; click on commentary headings to return to the text.
Click the links below to jump to the selected features on Matt24.com (a sub-section of Historicism.com):
- Parallel (synoptic) Passages: Matthew, Mark, Luke;
- Exposition of Matthew 24, by the famous Baptist preacher, Charles H. Spurgeon
- Commentary from B. W. Johnson's People's New Testament
- The Gospel of the Kingdom: A study of Matthew 24:14", by J.L. Haynes
Click on links in the text of Matthew 24 below to view commentary; click on commentary headings to return to the text.
(Luke 21:5-38 NAS95)
(Mark 13:1-37 NAS95)
“ 1 ¶ Jesus came out from the temple and was going away when His disciples came up to point out the temple buildings to Him. 2 And He said to them, "Do you not see all these things? Truly I say to you, not one stone here will be left upon another, which will not be torn down." 3 As He was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to Him privately, saying, "Tell us, when will these things happen, and what will be the sign of Your coming, and of the end of the age?"
4 ¶ And Jesus answered and said to them, "See to it that no one misleads you. 5 "For many will come in My name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and will mislead many. 6 "You will be hearing of wars and rumors of wars. See that you are not frightened, for those things must take place, but that is not yet the end. 7 "For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and in various places there will be famines and earthquakes. 8 "But all these things are merely the beginning of birth pangs. 9 "Then they will deliver you to tribulation, and will kill you, and you will be hated by all nations because of My name. 10 "At that time many will fall away and will betray one another and hate one another. 11 "Many false prophets will arise and will mislead many. 12 "Because lawlessness is increased, most people’s love will grow cold. 13 "But the one who endures to the end, he will be saved. 14 "This gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in the whole world as a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will come. 15 "Therefore when you see the ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), 16 then those who are in Judea must flee to the mountains. 17 "Whoever is on the housetop must not go down to get the things out that are in his house. 18 "Whoever is in the field must not turn back to get his cloak. 19 "But woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing babies in those days! 20 "But pray that your flight will not be in the winter, or on a Sabbath. 21 "For then there will be a great tribulation, such as has not occurred since the beginning of the world until now, nor ever will. 22 "Unless those days had been cut short, no life would have been saved; but for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short. 23 "Then if anyone says to you, ‘Behold, here is the Christ,’ or ‘There He is,’ do not believe him. 24 "For false Christs and false prophets will arise and will show great signs and wonders, so as to mislead, if possible, even the elect. 25 "Behold, I have told you in advance. 26 "So if they say to you, ‘Behold, He is in the wilderness,’ do not go out, or, ‘Behold, He is in the inner rooms,’ do not believe them. 27 "For just as the lightning comes from the east and flashes even to the west, so will the coming of the Son of Man be. 28 "Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures will gather. 29 "But immediately after the tribulation of those days THE SUN WILL BE DARKENED, AND THE MOON WILL NOT GIVE ITS LIGHT, AND THE STARS WILL FALL from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 30 "And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the SON OF MAN COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF THE SKY with power and great glory. 31 "And He will send forth His angels with A GREAT TRUMPET and THEY WILL GATHER TOGETHER His elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other.
32 ¶ "Now learn the parable from the fig tree: when its branch has already become tender and puts forth its leaves, you know that summer is near; 33 so, you too, when you see all these things, recognize that He is near, right at the door. 34 "Truly I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place. 35 "Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will not pass away. 36 "But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone. 37 "For the coming of the Son of Man will be just like the days of Noah. 38 "For as in those days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, 39 and they did not understand until the flood came and took them all away; so will the coming of the Son of Man be. 40 "Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one will be left. 41 "Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken and one will be left. 42 "Therefore be on the alert, for you do not know which day your Lord is coming. 43 "But be sure of this, that if the head of the house had known at what time of the night the thief was coming, he would have been on the alert and would not have allowed his house to be broken into. 44 "For this reason you also must be ready; for the Son of Man is coming at an hour when you do not think He will. 45 "Who then is the faithful and sensible slave whom his master put in charge of his household to give them their food at the proper time? 46 "Blessed is that slave whom his master finds so doing when he comes. 47 "Truly I say to you that he will put him in charge of all his possessions. 48 "But if that evil slave says in his heart, ‘My master is not coming for a long time,’ 49 and begins to beat his fellow slaves and eat and drink with drunkards; 50 the master of that slave will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour which he does not know, 51 and will cut him in pieces and assign him a place with the hypocrites; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”
“ 5 ¶ And while some were talking about the temple, that it was adorned with beautiful stones and votive gifts, He said, 6 "As for these things which you are looking at, the days will come in which there will not be left one stone upon another which will not be torn down." 7 They questioned Him, saying, "Teacher, when therefore will these things happen? And what will be the sign when these things are about to take place?" 8 And He said, "See to it that you are not misled; for many will come in My name, saying, ‘I am He,’ and, ‘The time is near.’ Do not go after them. 9 "When you hear of wars and disturbances, do not be terrified; for these things must take place first, but the end does not follow immediately." 10 Then He continued by saying to them, "Nation will rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom, 11 and there will be great earthquakes, and in various places plagues and famines; and there will be terrors and great signs from heaven. 12 "But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute you, delivering you to the synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for My name’s sake. 13 "It will lead to an opportunity for your testimony. 14 "So make up your minds not to prepare beforehand to defend yourselves; 15 for I will give you utterance and wisdom which none of your opponents will be able to resist or refute. 16 "But you will be betrayed even by parents and brothers and relatives and friends, and they will put some of you to death, 17 and you will be hated by all because of My name. 18 "Yet not a hair of your head will perish. 19 "By your endurance you will gain your lives.
20 ¶ "But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then recognize that her desolation is near. 21 "Then those who are in Judea must flee to the mountains, and those who are in the midst of the city must leave, and those who are in the country must not enter the city; 22 because these are days of vengeance, so that all things which are written will be fulfilled. 23 "Woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing babies in those days; for there will be great distress upon the land and wrath to this people; 24 and they will fall by the edge of the sword, and will be led captive into all the nations; and Jerusalem will be trampled under foot by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. 25 "There will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and on the earth dismay among nations, in perplexity at the roaring of the sea and the waves, 26 men fainting from fear and the expectation of the things which are coming upon the world; for the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 27 "Then they will see THE SON OF MAN COMING IN A CLOUD with power and great glory. 28 "But when these things begin to take place, straighten up and lift up your heads, because your redemption is drawing near."
29 ¶ Then He told them a parable: "Behold the fig tree and all the trees; 30 as soon as they put forth leaves, you see it and know for yourselves that summer is now near. 31 "So you also, when you see these things happening, recognize that the kingdom of God is near. 32 "Truly I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all things take place. 33 "Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will not pass away. 34 "Be on guard, so that your hearts will not be weighted down with dissipation and drunkenness and the worries of life, and that day will not come on you suddenly like a trap; 35 for it will come upon all those who dwell on the face of all the earth. 36 "But keep on the alert at all times, praying that you may have strength to escape all these things that are about to take place, and to stand before the Son of Man." 37 Now during the day He was teaching in the temple, but at evening He would go out and spend the night on the mount that is called Olivet. 38 And all the people would get up early in the morning to come to Him in the temple to listen to Him.”
“ 1 ¶ As He was going out of the temple, one of His disciples *said to Him, "Teacher, behold what wonderful stones and what wonderful buildings!" 2 And Jesus said to him, "Do you see these great buildings? Not one stone will be left upon another which will not be torn down." 3 As He was sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew were questioning Him privately, 4 "Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign when all these things are going to be fulfilled?"
5 ¶ And Jesus began to say to them, "See to it that no one misleads you. 6 "Many will come in My name, saying, ‘I am He!’ and will mislead many. 7 "When you hear of wars and rumors of wars, do not be frightened; those things must take place; but that is not yet the end. 8 "For nation will rise up against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; there will be earthquakes in various places; there will also be famines. These things are merely the beginning of birth pangs. 9 "But be on your guard; for they will deliver you to the courts, and you will be flogged in the synagogues, and you will stand before governors and kings for My sake, as a testimony to them. 10 "The gospel must first be preached to all the nations. 11 "When they arrest you and hand you over, do not worry beforehand about what you are to say, but say whatever is given you in that hour; for it is not you who speak, but it is the Holy Spirit. 12 "Brother will betray brother to death, and a father his child; and children will rise up against parents and have them put to death. 13 "You will be hated by all because of My name, but the one who endures to the end, he will be saved.
14 ¶ "But when you see the ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION standing where it should not be (let the reader understand), then those who are in Judea must flee to the mountains. 15 "The one who is on the housetop must not go down, or go in to get anything out of his house; 16 and the one who is in the field must not turn back to get his coat. 17 "But woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing babies in those days! 18 "But pray that it may not happen in the winter. 19 "For those days will be a time of tribulation such as has not occurred since the beginning of the creation which God created until now, and never will. 20 "Unless the Lord had shortened those days, no life would have been saved; but for the sake of the elect, whom He chose, He shortened the days. 21 "And then if anyone says to you, ‘Behold, here is the Christ’; or, ‘Behold, He is there’; do not believe him; 22 for false Christs and false prophets will arise, and will show signs and wonders, in order to lead astray, if possible, the elect. 23 "But take heed; behold, I have told you everything in advance.
24 ¶ "But in those days, after that tribulation, THE SUN WILL BE DARKENED AND THE MOON WILL NOT GIVE ITS LIGHT, 25 AND THE STARS WILL BE FALLING from heaven, and the powers that are in the heavens will be shaken. 26 "Then they will see THE SON OF MAN COMING IN CLOUDS with great power and glory. 27 "And then He will send forth the angels, and will gather together His elect from the four winds, from the farthest end of the earth to the farthest end of heaven.
28 ¶ "Now learn the parable from the fig tree: when its branch has already become tender and puts forth its leaves, you know that summer is near. 29 "Even so, you too, when you see these things happening, recognize that He is near, right at the door. 30 "Truly I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place. 31 "Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will not pass away. 32 "But of that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone. 33 "Take heed, keep on the alert; for you do not know when the appointed time will come. 34 "It is like a man away on a journey, who upon leaving his house and putting his slaves in charge, assigning to each one his task, also commanded the doorkeeper to stay on the alert. 35 "Therefore, be on the alert—for you do not know when the master of the house is coming, whether in the evening, at midnight, or when the rooster crows, or in the morning— 36 in case he should come suddenly and find you asleep. 37 "What I say to you I say to all, ‘Be on the alert!’"
from the Online Bible Version of The People's New Testament...with Explanatory Notes, by B. W. Johnson:
Mt 24:1 The Judgments on the Jewish Nation
SUMMARY OF MATTHEW 24: The Temple to Be Utterly Destroyed. The Questions Asked on the Mount of Olives. Wars and Rumors of Wars Predicted. False Prophets and Christs. The Sign for Flight from Jerusalem. The Great Tribulation. How the Son of Man Shall Come. The Sun Darkened. The Coming of the Son of Man. This Generation. The Time of Christ’s Coming Unknown. Injunction to Be Always in Readiness.
And Jesus went out of the temple. Immediately after the discourse in which he pronounced the woes upon the scribes and Pharisees, upon the temple and Jerusalem. This remarkable chapter is not one upon which commentators are agreed, and the conclusions that I have reached on the points of difference will not be found identical with those of any other writer. I believe, however, that they will be found harmonious with the Scripture. Compare Mr 13:1-37 Lu 21:5-36.
His disciples . . . shew him the buildings of the temple. He had just foreshadowed its destruction. With this in mind they point out its splendor, especially the amazing stones used in its construction. Compare Mr 13:1 Lu 21:5. The temple had been rebuilt in great splendor by Herod, and was not fully completed until about thirty years after the Savior’s crucifixion.
Not one stone upon another, etc. Other great temples are in ruins, but their ruins indicate their former splendor. The Parthenon, the Acropolis, the temples of Karnak, Luxor, and Baalbec are examples; but to find even the foundations of the Jewish temple it is necessary to dig beneath the modern city. It has entirely disappeared from the face of the earth, and a Mohammedan mosque stands on the spot where it stood.
As he sat on the mount of Olives. Passing out of the city, over the valley of Jehoshaphat, he and his disciples climbed the mount and sat down on its crest overlooking the city and temple bathed in the sunset.
Tell us. The disciples, still thinking of what the Lord had said, ask three questions: (1) When shall these things be? That is, the overthrow of the temple. (2) What shall be the sign of the coming? And (3) of the end of the world? They supposed these events would be simultaneous—a mistake. To understand what follows we must keep in mind that he has three questions to answer, nor are the answers blended.
Take heed that no man deceive you. By pretending to be Christ. As they yet believed that Christ would surely return to reign at Jerusalem, this admonition was needed.
Come in my name. As the Messiah. We learn from Josephus that enthusiasts did come about the time of the end of Jerusalem, claiming to be sent of God. Bar-cocheba, "the son of the star," appeared in A.D. 120. From time to time other deceivers have appeared.
Ye shall hear of wars. The Jewish war began in A.D. 66, and ended five years after. During this period all the Roman empire was filled with commotion. Nero, the emperor, was overthrown by Galba; six months after, Galba was overthrown by Otho; a few months after, Otho was overthrown by Vitelius; a little later, he was overthrown by Vespasian. All of these but the last, who ascended the throne shortly before Jerusalem was destroyed, died violent deaths.
Famines. The natural result of civil wars. Tacitus, the Roman historian, says of this period: "It was full of calamities, horrible with battles, rent with seditions, savage in peace itself."
Shall deliver you up to tribulation. To persecution. Soon literally fulfilled in the Jewish persecutions. The awful persecution of Nero also soon followed.
Ye shall be hated. Tacitus, describing Nero’s persecution begun in A.D. 64, says "the Christians were haters of mankind."
Then shall many be offended. Shall stumble and fall, rather than suffer for Christ. The half-hearted always do.
Many false prophets. False teachers. Compare Ga 1:7 1Jo 2:12,18 4:1 2Pe 2:1 1Ti 4:1. See also Josephus, [Wars of the Jews], 6.5.3.
Because iniquity shall abound, etc. Immorality eats out the heart of religion.
He that endures to the end, etc. The Christian Jews who endured to the end were saved by flight to Pella, beyond the Jordan, at the signal pointed out by the Lord. The principle is generally applicable.
This gospel of the kingdom, etc. The gospel was preached throughout the Roman empire, "the world" of the New Testament, before A.D. 70.
Then the end shall come. Of the Jewish state.
When therefore ye see the abomination of desolation. This is the sign when Christians should flee from Jerusalem. See Da 9:27 11:31 12:11. Luke says, "When ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies" (Lu 21:20). This was, therefore, Christ’s explanation of the abomination of desolation. The Roman army, heathen, with heathen images and standards, ready to sacrifice to idols on the temple altar, working the desolation of Jerusalem and the temple, is what is meant.
In the holy place. Mark says, "Where it ought not" [Mr 13:14]; around "the holy city" [Mt 4:5].
Let them in Judea flee. For refuge.
Let him on the housetop. The flat roofs were sleeping places. All must be done without a moment’s delay.
Woe to them with child. Because not fit for flight and the hardships that must be endured.
Not in the winter. Because the streams were then impassable torrents from the heavy rains and the weather cold and wet, hard on homeless people.
Nor on the sabbath. Because then the gates of the city were closed, preventing departure. History tells us that the army of Cestius Gallus enclosed Jerusalem in A.D. 67, then deterred by its strength, retired to Caesarea. This was the signal for which the church waited, and it then fled beyond the Jordan.
Great tribulation. The account given by Josephus , the Jewish historian who witnessed and recorded the war, is almost an echo of the predictions of Christ. Women ate their own children from starvation; the Jews within the city fought each other as well as the Roman army; on August 10, A.D. 70, the city was stormed and there was a universal massacre; 1,100,00 persons perished, and 100,000 survivors were sold into slavery.
No flesh would be saved. If such awful work should continue, it would exterminate the human race.
For the elect’s sake. On their account, because there is salt to save the earth, and end shall be put to the awful work of death. The elect are the believers in Christ (Ro 11:5-7).
Then. During this period of tribulation, give no heed to false prophets, false Christs, or to those who say Christ is here or there.
For as the lightning. There will be no doubt about Christ’s coming when he does come, no discussion, no need that any one shall tell it. It will be manifest as the flash of lightning across the sky. There can be no mistake. Such language shows how much those err who claim that his coming was at the destruction of Jerusalem.
The carcase is, there will be the eagles. The term "carcase" well represents the utterly corrupted Jewish state; the "eagles" is a fit symbol of the Roman army, every legion of which bore the eagle as its standard.
Immediately after the tribulation of those days. The first question, "When shall these things be?" [Mt 24:3] has now been answered. Here begins the answer to the second, concerning the coming of the Lord. For other passages on the second coming, see 1Th 2:19 3:13 4:15 5:23 2Th 2:1,8,9 1Co 15:23 Jas 5:7 2Pe 1:16 3:12 1Jo 2:28. "Immediately" after the destruction of Jerusalem (the tribulation) the series of events begins that leads to the coming of Christ.
The sun shall be darkened. I take what follows to be symbolical, as is usual for prophecy, rather than literal. Christ is "the Sun of Righteousness" [Mal 4:2]. After the destruction of Jerusalem, the causes began to work that led to the great apostasy of the church and produced "the Dark Ages" of the church.
The moon shall not give her light. The moon shines by reflected light of the sun and if it is darkened so will be the moon. So, too, the church shines by the light of Christ. When Christ’s light was darkened by taking the Bible from the people the church give forth little light during the long night of the Middle Ages.
The stars shall fall. Stars represent great teachers of the church, apostles and evangelists. See Re 1:20. When the apostles were dethroned by the Romish apostasy, "the stars fell from heaven," figuratively. Other stars, great church lights who apostatized, fell from heaven in another sense.
Then. After the long period of apostasy.
Shall appear the sign of the Son of man. Some sign of his coming that every one will recognize when it is manifested.
All the tribes of the earth mourn. Because of their sins.
They shall see the Son of man coming. It will be visible to every eye and will be in splendor.
With a great sound of a trumpet. Compare 1Th 4:16.
Shall gather together his elect. Before the judgment on the world. The believers will be in all countries, mingled with the population of earth, and then shall be separated.
Four winds. The four quarters of the earth.
Learn a parable from the fig tree. The putting forth of the leaves is the sign that summer is near. It puts forth leaves usually in April. So "all these things" [Mt 24:34] show when the Lord is at hand.
This generation shall not pass till all these things be fulfilled. Some hold that "all these things," in Mt 24:32,33, refer only to what was said of the fall of Jerusalem, ending with Mt 24:28. Others have contended that the phrase includes the second coming, but refers directly to the end of Jerusalem, which was a type of the end of the world. I believe, rather, that "all these things" embraces all thus far predicted, and that "this generation" means the Jewish race, instead of only those then living. The Greek word [genea] so rendered is used in the sense of "race" in the Greek classics, and as examples of such use in the New Testament, Alford points to Mt 12:45 Lu 16:8, as examples of such use in the New Testament. Christ has described the awful end of the Jewish state; after such a destruction and scattering of the remnant to the ends of the earth, all the examples of history would declare that the Jewish race would become extinct. Christ, however, declares that, contrary to all probability, it shall not pass away until he comes. They still exist, 1850 years after the prediction, distinct, but without a country.
Of that day and hour knoweth no one. How foolish then to be figuring out the time of the Lord’s coming.
As were the days of Noah. As the deluge surprised the world, so will the Lord’s coming.
Two women shall be grinding at the mill. The hand-mills still used in the East. The grinding is done by women, usually two, as the work is hard for one. It will be the time of separation of the evil from the good.
Watch therefore. Because the coming will be unexpected. Mark adds, "and pray" [Mr 13:33].
If the master of the house. The lesson of the illustration is a constant state of preparation. Elsewhere in the New Testament Christ’s coming is compared to that of a thief in the night (1Th 5:1-10 Re 3:3 16:15).
Be ye also ready. The duty enjoined is not to watch for Christ, but to watch ourselves to see that we are ready.
Who then is a faithful and wise servant? In Lu 12:42-46, is given a similar parable in answer to a question of Peter. There the Lord speaks of "the faithful and wise steward"; here he describes a steward, but speaks of him as a servant.
Ruler. Preachers, elders, deacons, Sunday-school superintendents, teachers.
Household. All under their religious charge.
Blessed is that servant, whom his lord . . . shall find so doing. The blessedness applies equally to those who are faithful unto death and those who are so found at the Lord’s coming. This blessedness is in the reward the Lord will give.
He shall make him ruler over all his goods. The parables of the talents and the pounds show that those who have been faithful to the trusts given them here shall receive additional trusts in the Savior’s eternal kingdom.
My lord delayeth his coming. The worst enemy of Christ is the professed servant of the Lord who practices are evil, and who supposes he can evade punishment for his crimes.
And shall begin to beat his fellow-servants. There is no sin more common among those who are clothed with authority than oppression. There have been no worse oppressors than priests.
And to eat and drink with the drunken. What first disgusted Luther with the faith in which he had been reared was the profligacy of the priests and monks. It has often been the case that the Vatican was the very hot-bed of scandal.
The lord of that servant shall come. He will certainly come, and come when the servant is unprepared for him. The majority of the wicked who die in their sins have expected to be better prepared for the end of life.
And shall cut him asunder. An ancient method of punishment which was practiced among the Israelites. See 1Sa 15:33 2Sa 12:31. The idea here is that very severe punishment shall be inflicted upon him, while weeping and gnashing of teeth would indicate a life of intense suffering. Indeed both these expressions must be regarded as metaphors, indicating nothing more clearly than a terrible and certain punishment.
Although B. W. Johnson’s The People’s New Testament is not listed in BOOKS IN PRINT, it is still available through the Gospel Advocate Bookstore, 1006 Elm Hill Pike, Nashville, TN 37210. 1-800-251-8446.
Barton W. Johnson, born in 1833, attended Walnut Grove Academy (later Eureka College) and Bethany College. At the latter he studied under Alexander Campbell, R. Milligan, W. K. Pendelton, and R. Richardson, and graduated with honors in 1856. Afterwards he taught at Eureka College for seven years and at Bethany for two years. For sixteen years he edited the weekly periodical The Evangelist (later The Christian-Evangelist). In addition to The Peoples’ New Testament, Johnson also authored Vision of the Ages (a commentary on Revelation), The Gospel of John, and a Lesson Commentary on 277 verses of the Gospel of Mark.
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- The Problem with Preterism
- Josephus - part 1
- Josephus - part 2
- Philip Mauro on "The Olivet Prophecy" in the Gospel of Mark
- Philip Mauro on the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70
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