Recovering the classic, Protestant interpretation of Bible prophecy.



1 "Mediaeval Church History," p. 14.

2 "Wherefore, trusting in the justice and mercy of God, and of his blessed mother, the ever- blessed Virgin Mary, on your authority (that of St. Peter and St. Paul), the above-named Henry and all his adherents I excommunicate and bind in the fetters of anathema; on the part of God Almighty, and on yours, I interdict him of all royal power and dignity. I prohibit every Christian from rendering him obedience as king. I absolve all who have sworn or shall swear allegiance to his sovereignty from their oaths." - Milman: "History of Latin Christianity," vol. 4., p. 121.

3 "The three great sovereigns of western Europe, the kings of Germany, of France, and of England, had seen their realms under Papal interdict, themselves under sentence of excommunication. But the Papal power under Innocent not only aspired to humble the loftiest. Hardly one of the smaller kingdoms had not already been taught, or was not soon taught, to feel the awful majesty of the Papacy. From the Northem Ocean to Hungary, from Hungary to the Spanish shore of the Atlantic, Innocent is exercising what takes the language of protective or parental authority, but which in most cases is asserted by the terrible interdict." - Milman: "History of Latin Christianity," vol. 5., p. 805.

4 Hallam: "History of the Middle Ages," p. 368, 4th ed.

5 Cited in "The Pope, the Kings, and the People." by Revelation William Arthur, M.A., vol. 1., p. 211.


1 "Let us suppose a rebel in some distant province to forge the royal seal and handwriting, and pretend to act in the name of the sovereign. He then claims to himself entire and unreserved allegiance. He abrogates whatever laws he pleases, and enacts contrary ones in their room. He enforces his own statutes by the severest punishments against those who still adhere to the old laws of the kingdom. He clothes himself with the robes of state, applies to himself the royal titles, claims immunity from the laws, even of his own enacting; and pretends that all the statutes derive their sole force from his sanction, and must borrow their meaning from his interpretations. Last of all, he banishes, strips of their goods, imprisons, and puts to death all those subjects who abide by the laws of the king and reject his usurpation. Surely, in this case, the pretence of governing in the monarch’s name does not excuse, but aggravates the rebellion. It lessens greatly, it is true, the guilt of the deceived subjects, but increases, in the same proportion, the crime of their deceiver" (Birks: "The First Two Visions of Daniel," p. 221).


1 The following legal distinction should be borne in mind in weighing this point. It is given in "Blackstone’s Commentary," book 1, chapter 1. "Persons are divided by the law into either natural persons or artificial. Natural persons are such as are formed by the God of nature; artificial are such as are created and devised by human laws for the purposes of society and government, which are called corporations or bodies politic." Thus there is a sort of perpetual person in whom a community subsists, as well as the person whose life is confined within the limits of one individual existence. Each is equally real, and either may be spoken of in the singular. "The parson of a parish" may mean either a man or a succession of men. So "the pope of Rome" may intimate one single bishop or the long succession ù a perpetual person. So "the man of sin." See on this subject a careful investigation in "The Apostasy Predicted by St Paul," by Dr. O. Sullivan (Curry, Dublin).]

2 Jewell on 2 Thessalonians, p. 245.

3 "Admonition Showing the Advantages which Christendom might Derive from and Inventory of Relics." ù Calvin: Tracts, vol. 1, p. 289.

4 W. Cunninghame, D.D.: "Historical Theology," vol. 1., p. 483.


1 Hallam: History of the Middle Ages, Fourth Edit., p. 368.


1 Hippolytus: vol. 1., p. 447.

2 Elliott: Hort, Apocalypticce, vol. 4., p. 299, 4th ed.

3 "Est enim homo peccati, filius perditionis, ita ut in templo Dei sedere audeat, faciens se quasi Deum." 4 As to the "let" or hindrance to the manifestation of the "man of sin" referred to in 2 Thessalonians 2, Mr. Elliott says: "We have the consenting testimony of the early Fathers, from Irenoeus, the disciple of the disciple of St. John, down to Chrysostom and Jerome, to the effect that it was understood to be the imperial power ruling and residing at Rome." ù Horae Apocalypticae, vol. 3., p. 92.

Irenaeus held that the division of the Roman empire into ten kingdoms would immediately precede the manifestation of antichrist. In his work, "Against Heresies," book 5, chapter 30, he says, "Let them await, in the first place, the division of the kingdom into ten; then, in the next place, when these kings are reigning, and beginning to set their affairs in order and advance their kingdom, (let them learn) to acknowledge that he who shall come claiming the kingdom for himself and shall terrify those sons of men of whom we have been speaking, having a name containing the aforesaid number (666), is truly the abomination of desolation." Thus, according to Irenaeus, the manifestation of antichrist required the previous overthrow of the then existing Roman empire.

"Tertullian’s Apology" thus describes the habit of the Christian Church of the second century to pray for the security of the Roman empire, in the knowledge that its downfall would bring the catastrophe of the reign of antichrist and the ruin of the world. Addressing the "rulers of the Roman empire," he says: "We offer prayer for the safety of our princes to the eternal, the true, the living God, whose favor, beyond all others, they must themselves desire..Thither we lift our eyes, with hands outstretched, because free from sin; with head uncovered, for we have nothing whereof to be ashamed; finally, without a monitor, because it is from the heart we supplicate. And without ceasing for all our emperors we offer prayer. We pray for life prolonged; for security to the empire.. With our hands thus stretched out and up to God, rend us with your iron claws, hang us up on crosses, wrap us in flames, take our heads from us with the sword, let loose the wild beasts upon us ù the very attitude of a Christian praying is the preparation for all punishment. Let this, good rulers, be your work, wring from us the soul, beseeching God on the emperor’s behalf. Upon the truth of God and devotion to His name put the brand of crime..There is also another and a greater necessity for our offering prayer in behalf of the emperors, nay, for the complete stability of the empire, and for Roman interests in general. For we know that a mighty shock impending over the whole earth ù in fact, the very end of all things, threatening dreadful woes ù is only retarded by the continued existence of the Roman empire. We have no desire then to be overtaken by these dire events; and in praying that their coming may be delayed, we are lending our aid to Rome’s duration." - "Apology," Sections 30-32. (Est et alia maior necessitas nobis orandi pro imperatoribus, etiam pro omni statu imperii rebusque Romanis, qui vim maximam universo orbi imminentem ipsamque clausulam saeculi acerbitates horrendas comminantem Romani imperii commeatu scimus retardari." ù Tertullian: "Apologeticurn, " Section 32.)

Jerome writes to the same effect in his commentary on 2 Thessalonians 2: "He who now letteth, or hindreth." "Ut qui tenet nunc teneat, etc. Donec REGNUM QUOD NUNC TENET, de medeo auferatur, prius qua antichristus reveletur."

Monon o katecwm arti ewv ek mejsou genutai toutejstin h arch h Rwmai‘kh otan arqh ejk mejsou, tote ejteinov hxei. . .Wsper gajr aij pro toutou katelqusan basileiai, oion h Madon hpo babulwniwn, h babulwniwn upo Perswn, h Perswn upo Makedonwn, h Makedonun upo Rwmaian J outw kaij auth uJpo tou Anticristou, kakeinov upo tou Cristou.  - Chrysostom:

"Homily on 2 Thessalonians 2:6-9."

5 Tertullian: "On the Resurrection," chaps, 24,25

6 Apology, Section 32

7 Chrysostom: Homily 4., "On 2 Thessalonians 2."

8 Treatise 11.

9 Irenoeus: "AgainstHeresies," book 5, chapter 30.

10 Treatise "On Christ and Antichrist," Section 36.

11 "City of God," book 18, chapter 22.

12 Hallam, "History of the Middle Ages," p. 384.

13"Di voi pastor s’ accorse il Vangelista, Quando colei, che siede sovra l’acque Puttaneggiar co’ Regi a lui fu vista: Quella che con le sette teste nacque, E dalle diece corna ebbe argomento, Fin che virtute al suo marito piacque. Fatto v’avete Dio d’oro e d’argento: E che altro e da voi all’ idolatre, Se non ch’egli uno, e voi n’orate cento? Ahi Costantin, di quanto mal fu matre, Non la tua conversion, ma quella dote Che da te prese il primo ricco patre!" Dante: "Inferno," canto 19.

14 Extract from the Waldensian Treatise on Antichrist, dated A.D. 1120 (Histoire Generale des Eglises Evangeliques des Vallees de Piemont, ou Vaudoises, par Jean Leger, A.D. 1669, p. 71, etc.).


"ANTICHRIST..Ma meseima la falseta, pausa contra la verita quilli se quebre e se orna de belleza, e de pieta, de fora de la Gleisa de Christ, enaima de Christ, enaima de Nom, de Officies, de Scripturas, e de Sacramens, e de motas autras cosas. La iniquita d’aquesta maniera com li seo Ministre majors, e menors, com li seguent ley de maluas cor e cec, aital congregation ensemp presa es appela ANTICHRIST, o BABYLONIA, o QUARTA BESTIA, o MERETRIX, o HOME DE PECCA, Filli de perdition.

"Li seos Ministres son-appella FALS PROPHETAS, Maistres mesongers, Ministres de tenebras, Sperit d’error, MERETRIX APOCALYPTICA, maire de fornication, niolas senza aigua, arbres auctomnals, morts & arancas per doas vez, undas del crudel mar, stellas errans, balaamitiens, e Gissiptiens.

"El es dit Antichrist emperco ca cubert e orna sot specie de Christ, e de la Gleisa, e de li seo fidel membre, contraria a la salu faita per Christ, e aministra verament en la Gleisa de Christ."


"L’ANTICHRIST..Mais c’est la faussete meme opposee a la verite, qui se couvre et s’orne de beaute, et de piete, hors de l’Eglise de Christ, comme des Noms, des Offices, des Ecritures et des Sacremens, et de plusieurs autres choses: l’iniquite laquelle est de cette maniere, avec tous ces Ministres grans et petis, avec tous ceux qui le ensuivent de mauvais coeur, et avengle, telle congregation prise ensemble est appelee ANTICHRIST, ou BABYLONE, ou QUATRIEME BETE, ou PAILLARDE, ou HOMME DE PECHE, FILS DE PERDITION.

"Ses Ministres sout appelez FAUX PROPHETES, Maitres mensongers, Ministres de tenebres, Esprit d’erreur, PAILLARDE APOCALYPTIQUE, Mere de fornication, nuees sans eau, arbres automnals morts et arrachez par deux fois, ondes de la cruelle mer, etoiles errantes, Balaamites, et Egyptiens. "Il est dit Antichrist, pour ce que couvert et orne de la Livre de Christ, et de son Elgise, et de ses fideles membres, il contrarie au salut fait par Christ, et administre vrayement en l’Eglise de Christ."

15 "An epistle of John Huss to the people of Pragne:

". . .The more circumspect ye ought to be, for that ANTICHRIST laboreth the more to trouble you. The last judgment is near at hand; death shall swallow up many, but to the elect children of God the kingdom of God draweth near..Know ye, well beloved, that ANTICHRIST being stirred up against you deviseth divers persecutions." ù "Acts and Monuments," volume 3., pp. 497,498.

"A letter of John Huss to the Lord John de Clum:

". . .By your letter which I received yesterday, I understand first, how the iniquity of the great strumpet, that is, of the malignant congregation, WHEREOF MENTION IS MADE IN THE APOCALYPSE, is detected, and shall be more detected; with which strumpet the kings of the earth do commit fornication, fornicating spiritually from Christ; and, as is there said, sliding back from the truth, and consenting to the lies of ANTICHRIST, through his seduction and through fear, or through hope of confederacy, for getting of worldly honor." "Acts and Monuments," volume 3, p. 499.

"Letter of John Huss, wherein he comforteth his friends and willeth them not to be troubled for the condemning of his books, and also declareth the wickedness of the clergy:

"Master John Huss, in hope, the servant of God, to all the faithful who love him and his statutes, wisheth the truth and grace of God..Surely even at this day is the malice, the abomination, and filthiness of ANTICHRIST revealed in the pope and others of this council..Oh how acceptable a thing should it be, if time would suffer me to disclose their wicked acts, which are now apparent; that the faithful servants of God might know them? I trust in God that He will send after me those that shall be more valiant; and there are alive at this day that shall make more manifest the malice of ANTICHRIST, and shall give their lives to the death for the truth of our Lord Jesus Christ, who shall give, both to you and me, the joys of life everlasting.

"This epistle was written upon St. John Baptist’s Day, in prison and in cold irons; I having this meditation with myself, that John was beheaded in his prison and bonds for the word of God." ù "Acts and Monuments," volume 3, pp 502,503.

16 In the year 1421 the miseries of the Bohemians greatly increased.

Besides the executions by drowning, by fire, and by the sword, several thousands of the followers of Huss, especially the Taborires, of all ranks and both sexes, were thrown down the old mines and pits of Kuttenberg..In one pit were thrown 1,700, in another 1,308, and in a third 1,321 persons. Every year, on the 18th of April, a solemn meeting was held in a chapel built there, in memory of those martyrs, until the year 1613, when the mint-master Wrschesowetz endeavored to prevent it, yet it continued until the great persecution of 1621. A monument, it is said, still marks the place (Lasitius, ‘Origo Fratrum,’ volume 1, p. 69; Theobald’s ‘Hussite War,’ p. 150, 1624; Reiger’s ‘History of the Bohemian Brethren,’ vol. ii., p. 592; Regenvoscius, ‘Systema Hist. Ecclesiastes Sclavonic.’)." ù "The Reformation and Anti-Reformation in Bohemia," p. 13.


1 "Works," volume 2, p. 385

2 Ibid., volume 2, p. 386.

3 See D’Aubigne’s "History of the Reformation," book 14, chapter 8.

4 "Works," volume 4, p. 537.

5 "Quod Romanus pontifex, cum universo ordine suo et regno, sit ipsissimus antichristus," etc. ù "Works," volume 4, p. 537.

6 "Quare affirmo, nullam, unquam extitisse haeresin, neque adeo futuram esse, cui verius et certius hae Pauli descriptiones, convenire ac competere queant atque huic pontificio regno." ù "Works," volume 4, p. 537.

7 "Art. Smalc S. 347: Constat, Romanos pontifices cum suis membris defendere impiam doctrinam et impios cultus. Ac plane notae ANTICHRISTI competunt in regnum papae et sua membra Paulus enim ad Thessalonicenses describens ANTICHRISTUM, vocat eum adversarium Christi, extollentem se super omne, quod dicitur aut colitur Deus, sedentem in templo Dei, tanquam Deum. Loquitur igitur de aliquo regnante in ecclesia, non de regibus ethnicis: et hunc vocat adversarium Christi, quia doctrinam pugnantem cum evangelio excogitaturus sit, et is arrogabit sibi auctoritatem divinam. Primum autem constat, papam regnare in ecclesia, et praetextu ecclesiasticae auctoritatis et ministerii sibi hoc regnum constituisse. "..Deinde doctrina papae multipliciter pugnat cum evangelio, et afrogat sibi papa auctoritatem divinam tripliciter: primum quia..,secunda quia..,tertio quia..Hoc autem est se Deum facere, nolle, ab ecclesia aut ab ullo judicari..Haec quum ita sint, cavere omnes Christiani debent, ne fiant participes impiae doctrinae, blasphemiarum et injustae crudelitatis papae. Ideo papam cum suis membris, tanquam regnum ANTICHRISTI, deserere et exsecrari debent."

8 Book 4. 25.


1 "Approaching End of the Age," p. 476.

2 Fleming, "Decline and Fall of Rome Papal," p. 83.

3 Bishop Newton: "Dissertation on the Prophecies," pp. 682,696.

4 Robert S. Candlish, D.D.: Lecture on "The Pope, the Antichrist of Scripture."


1 "A New System of the Apocalypse," p. 214.

2 Haggai 2:4-9.

3 Malachi 3:1.

4 D’Aubigne "History of the Reformation, " vol. 1, p. 163.

5 D’Aubigne "History of the Reformation, " vol. 2 p. 129.

6 Reference not available.

7 Cunninghame.



1 J. C. Colquhoun: "Progress of the Church of Rome towards Ascendancy in England traced through the Parliamentary History of Forty Years." London: Macintosh, 24, Paternoster Row, E.C.

2 "Essays on Religion," p. 19.

3 Ibid., p. 458.

4 Ibid., pp. 458,459.

5 "Catholic Progress."

6 "Wealth of Nations," p. 237.

Romanism and the Reformation Index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Conclusion Notes

About Me

Historicism.com is owned and operated by me, Joe Haynes, of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. I serve as a pastor in a church plant in Victoria since 2013. My wife, Heather, and I have five kids. In 2011, I completed a Master of Arts in Christian Studies from Northwest Baptist Seminary at the Associated Canadian Theological Seminaries of Trinity Western University. I am currently a student in the Doctor of Ministry program at The Master's Seminary. Feel free to visit my blog at Keruxai.com.
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